Definition of the
CIDOC
Conceptual Reference Model

Version 5.0.1

March 2009


 

 Table of Contents

 

  1. Initial Page
  2. Introduction
  3. References
  4. The Entity and Property List
  5. APPENDIX
    1. Editorial notes
    2. Amendments to version 3.3.
    3. Amendments to version 3.3.1.
    4. Amendments to version 3.3.2.
    5. Amendments to version 3.4.
    6. Amendments to version 3.4.1.
    7. Amendments to version 3.4.2.
    8. Amendments to version 3.4.9.
    9. Amendments to version 4.2.
    10. Amendments to version 4.2.1.
    11. Amendments to version 4.2.2.
    12. Amendments to version 4.2.4.
    13. Amendments to version 4.2.5.
    14. Amendments to version 4.2.5a.
    15. Amendments to version 4.3.
    16. Amendments to version 5.0.

APPENDIX

Editorial notes

 

Editors:

Nick Crofts
City of Geneva,

Geneva, Switzerland

Martin Doerr,
ICS-FORTH,
Heraklion-Crete,

Greece

Tony Gill
RLG,
Mountain View,

CA, USA

Stephen Stead,

Paveprime Ltd,

London

UK

Matthew Stiff
English Heritage
Swindon,

UK

 

Creation Date:       11-07-1998

Last Modified:      24-10-2003

 

The present version of the CIDOC CRM incorporates a series of amendments to version 3.2.1, submitted to ISO and accepted as Committee Draft ISO/CD 21127. These amendments were the result of a systematic exploration of the requirements for the intended scope of the CIDOC CRM as decided in summer 2001. This includes in particular documentation in Natural History, archaeology and the ability to communicate with traditional and Digital Libraries. These amendments have been developed and approved by the CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group, ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 in a series of meetings together with various invited experts in the period from July 2001 to October 2003.

 

With this version, the cycle of amendments to extend the functionality of the CIDOC CRM ends. The development team felt that the task to cover the intended scope as outlined in July 2001 and the general functionality required by members of the team up to now has been successfully fulfilled. Further amendments should only concern editorial changes to improve the clarity of the text.  Therefore, the modelling constructs of the CIDOC CRM are expected to undergo no changes from this version until the final International Standard.

 

With version 3.3.2, we have changed the format of the Definition of the CIDOC CRM. We present:

  1. A general introduction to the model (as before)
  2. The hierarchy of entities as an indented list (as before)
  3. The hierarchy of properties as an indented list
  4. The definition of each entity
  5. The definition of each property.

 

We took out all cross-reference information, i.e. inherited properties, direct and inherited inverse references of properties at the range entity, as well as the indices to properties, alphabetically, by range and by domain. So this document remains the pure definition, whereas the full cross-referenced text will appear as an additional hypertext document, which will be semi-automatically generated. The reason for this change are: (1) the size of the cross-referenced document exceeds what one would normally print in one document. (2) the cross-referencing does not contribute to the definition. (3) Translators of the document are forced to manually trace the consistency of the cross-referencing, a nearly impossible task. The cross-referenced document is of course the only one, that allows for fully understanding the model by reading and for using it in conceptual modelling.

 

We further removed the references to the metamodel under which the CIDOC CRM was initially developed. Even though the use of this metamodel has contributed a lot to the rigidity of developing the CIDOC CRM, it seems to be of minor importance for the use of the Model itself. Moreover it needs reworking, and metamodelling is still not a standard procedure in conceptual modelling. Therefore the development team decided not to make it a part of the standard to become.

 

We present in the Annex the amendment history from version 3.2.1 on. This, together with the meeting minutes and the “issues list” on the CIDOC CRM home page, allows for tracing the correctness of this document with respect to the decisions of the development team.

 

 

 


Amendments to version 3.3

 

In the Second Joined Meeting of ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 and CIDOC CRM SIG the following has been decided: 3, new entities and 14 new properties have been declared, domain of 3 properties and range of 2 properties was changed and 1 property renamed

 

1) New Entities and their properties

E78 Collection is curated by (curates): Actor

E79 Part Addition added to (was augmented by): Physical Man-Made Thing

E79 Part Addition added (was added by): Physical Thing

E80 Part Removal removed from (was diminished by): Physical Man-Made Thing

E80 Part Removal removed (was removed by): Physical Thing

 

2) New properties

E2 Temporal Entity. removed (was removed by): Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. equal in time: Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. finishes (finished-by): Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. starts (started-by): Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. during (includes): Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. overlaps in time (overlapped-by in time): Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. meets in time (met-by in time): Temporal Entity

E2 Temporal Entity. before (after): Temporal Entity

E53 Place overlaps. with: E53 Place

E53 Place borders. with: E53 Place

 

3) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has former or current location (is former or current location of): Place

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has former or current location (is former or current location of): Place

 

4) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has current permanent location (is current permanent  location of): Place

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has current permanent location (is current permanent  location of): Place

 

5) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has current location (currently holds): Place

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has current location (currently holds): Place

 

6) The Property:

                E7 Activity. was motivation for (motivated): Conceptual Object

has been redirected to:

                E7 Activity. was motivation for (motivated): Man-Made Thing

 

7) The Property:

                E7 Activity. motivated the creation of (was created for): Conceptual Object

has been redirected and changed to:

                E7 Activity. motivated the creation of (was created because of): Man-Made Thing

 

8) The property “P33 used specific technique” was declared as subproperty of “P15 took into account”

 

9) The property “P111 added to” was declared as subproperty of “P31 has modified”

 

10) The property “P113 removed from” was declared as subproperty of “P31 has modified”

11) Scope note for Actors Hierarchy, Actor and Title have been revised.

 

12) Scope notes for properties have been added.

 

Amendments to version 3.3.1

 

In the 3rd joined meeting of the CIDOC Special Interest Group and ISO/TC46//SC4/WG9 the following have been decided: 1 new entity and 5 new properties have been declared, domain of 4 properties was changed and 1 property renamed, 1 entity has been deleted, 7 entities was renamed.

 

1) New Entity and its properties

E81 Transformation resulted in (was result on): Persistent Item

E81 Transformation transformed (was transformed by): Persistent Item

 

2) New properties

E7 Activity. used general object (was used for): Type

E11 Modification. employed (was employed by): Material

E55 Type. has broader term (has narrower term): Type

 

3) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): Actor

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): Actor

 

4) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has keeper (is current keeper of): Actor

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has keeper (is current keeper of): Actor

 

5) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): Actor

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): Actor

 

6) The Property:

                E19 Physical Object. has owner (is current owner of): Actor

has been redirected to:

                E18 Physical Thing. has owner (is current owner of): Actor

 

7) The Property:

                E7 Activity. used object (was used for): Physical Object

has been renamed to:

                E7 Activity. used specific object (was used for): Physical Object

 

8) The entity

E76 Gender and the property P61 has gender

have been deleted

 

9) 7 entities has been renamed:

E8 Acquisition

E8 Acquisition

E11 Modification

E11 Modification

E12 Production

E12 Production

E16 Measurement

E16 Measurement

E65 Conceptual Creation

E65 Creation

E66 Formation

E66 Formation

E77 Existence

E77 Persistent Item

 

Amendments to version 3.3.2

 

In the 3th joined meeting of the CIDOC Special Interest Group and ISO/TC46//SC4/WG9 the following have been decided: 2 new entities and 12 new properties have been declared, 1 entity has been renamed, domain of 4 properties was changed, range of 8 properties was changed, 6 properties renamed, 7 properties has been deleted.

 

Note: a typing mistake was corrected in item number 17 of the list on 16/01/2008.

 

The property:

               E9 Move. P27 moved from (vacated): E53 Place

has been renamed to :

E9 Move. P26 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place

 

This was corrected to:

The property:

                E9 Move. P27 moved from (vacated): E53 Place

has been renamed to :

E9 Move. P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place

 

 

1) New Entities:

E82 Actor Appellation.

It was declared as subclass of E41 Appellation

 

E83 Type Creation.

It was declared as subclass of E65 Creation

 

2) New properties:

It was declared as subproperty of

E23 Information Carrier. P128 is carried of (is materialized by): E73 Information Object

 

E73 Information Object. P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity

E28 Conceptual Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

 

E70 Thing. P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing

                                (kind of similarity: Type)

It was declared as superproperty of

E33 Linguistic Object. P73 has translation (is translation of): E33 Linguistic Object

 

E4 Period. P132 overlaps with: E4 Period

 

E4 Period. P133 is separated from: E4 Period

 

E7 Activity. P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity

It was declared as subproperty of

E7 Activity. P15 (was influenced by (influenced): E7 Activity

 

E83 Type Creation. P135 created type (was created by): E55 Type.

It was declared as subproperty of

E65 Creation. P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object

 

E83 Type Creation. P136 was based on (supported type creation): E1 CRM Entity

(in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)

It was declared as subproperty of

E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity.

 

E55 Type. P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies): E1 CRM Entity

                                                (in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)

 

E36 Visual Item. P138 visualizes (has visualization): E1 CRM Entity,

It was declared as subpropertry of

E28 Conceptual Object. P67 refer to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

 

E41 Appellation. P139 also represented by: E41 Appellation

 

3) The entity E23 Iconographic Object has been renamed to E23 Information Carrier

 

4) The domain of the following properties was changed:

 

The property:

E18 Physical Thing. P43 has dimension (is dimension of): E54 Dimension

has been redirected to:

E70 Thing. P43 has dimension (is dimension of): E54 Dimension.

 

The property:

E28 Conceptual Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

has been redirected to:

E73 Information Object. P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

 

The property:

E18 Physical Thing. P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place

has been redirected to:

E19 Physical Object. P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place

 

The property:

E18 Physical Thing. P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place

has been redirected to:

E19 Physical Object. P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place

 

5) The ranges of the following properties were changed:

 

The property:

E16 Measurement. P39 measured (was measured by): E18 Physical Thing

has been redirected to:

E16 Measurement. P39 measured (was measured by): E70 Thing

 

The property:

E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E19 Physical Object

has been redirected to:

E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing

 

The property:

E8 Acquisition. P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E19 Physical Object

has been redirected to:

E8 Acquisition. P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E18 Physical Thing

 

The property:

E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E70 Thing

has been redirected to:

E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item

 

7) The property:

E7 Activity. P15 took into account (was taken into account by): E77 Persistent Item

has been renamed and redirected to:

E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity

 

8) The property:

E7 Activity. P17 was motivation for (motivated): E71 Man-Made Thing

has been renamed and redirected to:

E7 Activity. P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity

 

9) The property:

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. P62 depicts object (is depicted by): E18 Physical Thing

has been renamed and redirected to:

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity

 

10) The property:

E74 Group. P107 had member (was member of): E39 Actor

has been renamed to :

E74 Group. P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of): E39 Actor

 

11) The property:

E52 Time-Span. P81 at least covering: E61 Time Primitive

has been renamed to :

E52 Time-Span. P81 ongoing throughout: E61 Time Primitive

 

12) The property:

E52 Time-Span. P82 at most within: E61 Time Primitive

has been renamed to :

E52 Time-Span. P82 at some time within: E61 Time Primitive

 

13) The following properties was deleted:

E3 Condition State. P6 falls within (contains): E3 Condition State

E7 Activity. P18 motivated the creation of (was created because of): E71 Man-Made Thing

E21 Person. P60 is member of: E40 Legal Body

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. P63 depicts event (is depicted by):E5 Event

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing. P64 depicts concept (is depicted by):E55 Type

E28 Conceptual Object. P66 refer to concept (is referred to by): E55 Type

E52 Time-Span. P85 consists of (forms part of): E52 Time-Span

 

14) The property:

E5 Event. P11 had participants (participated in): E39 Actor

has been renamed to :

E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor

 

15) The property:

E7 Activity. P21 had as general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type

has been renamed to :

E7 Activity. P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type

 

16) The property:

                E9 Move. P26 moved to (occupied): E53 Place

has been renamed to :

E9 Move. P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place

 

17) The property:

                E9 Move. P27 moved from (vacated): E53 Place

has been renamed to :

E9 Move. P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place

 

18) The property:

                E15 Identifier Assignment. P37 assigns (is assigned by): E42 Object identifier

has been renamed to :

                E15 Identifier Assignment. P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Object identifier

 

19) The property:

                E15 Identifier Assignment. P38 deassigns (is deassigned by): E42 Object identifier

has been renamed to :

                E15 Identifier Assignment. P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Object identifier

 

20) The property:

                E19 Physical Object. P48 preferred identifier is (is preferred identifier of): E42 Object identifier

has been renamed to :

                E19 Physical Object. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Object identifier

 

21) The property:

                E32 Authority Document. P71 contains (is part of): E55 Type

has been renamed to :

                E32 Authority Document. P71 lists (is listed in): E55 Type

 

21) The property:

                E39 Actor. P76 has contact points (provides access to): E51 Contact Point

has been renamed to :

                E39 Actor. P76 has contact point (provides access to): E51 Contact Point

 

22) The property:

                E52 Time-Span. P83 had at least duration: E54 Dimension

has been renamed to :

                E52 Time-Span. P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of): E54 Dimension

 

23) The property:

                E52 Time-Span. P84 had at most duration: E54 Dimension

has been renamed to :

                E52 Time-Span. P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of): E54 Dimension

 

24) The property:

                E54 Dimension. P90 value: E60 Number

has been renamed to :

                                E54 Dimension. P90 has value: E60 Number

 

25) The property:

P15 was influenced by (influenced)

was declared as superproperty of

                P16 used specific object (was used for)

                P17 was motivated by (motivated)

                P19 was intended use of (was made for)

                P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)

                P134 continued (was continued by)

 

26) The property:

                P11 had participant (participated in)

was declared as subproperty of

                                P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)

 

27) The entity

                E72 Legal Object was declared as subclass of E70 Thing

 

28) The entity

                E55 Type was declared as subclass of  E28 Conceptual Object

 

29) All uses of the word “link” as synonym for “property” have been replaced by the term “property”

 

The following changes for internal consistency have been proposed, but they have not been decided in the Copenhagen meeting. They are incorporated in this document, in expectation of a positive decision:

 

1) The property:

                E40 Legal Body. consists of (belongs to): E40 Legal Body

was deleted (new issue 104).

 

2) The property

                P105.2 has note: E62 String

was deleted (new issue 106).

 

 

3) The property:

P33 used specific technique

was declared as subproperty of

                                P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)

4) New property

E39 Actor. P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation.

It was declared as subproperty of

E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation

 

Amendments to version 3.4

 

In the 5th joined meeting of the CIDOC Special Interest Group and ISO/TC46//SC4/WG9 the following have been decided: 3 entities were deleted and 1 new entity was declared, 24 properties has been renamed, domain of 1 property was changed, and range of 1 property was changed.

 

Note: a typing mistake was corrected in item number 14 of the list on 16/01/2008.

The property

E79 Part Removal. P112 removed from (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

has been renamed to :

E79 Part Removal. P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

This was corrected to:

The property

E80 Part Removal. P112 removed from (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

has been renamed to :

E80 Part Removal. P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

 

 

1) The entity:

E23 Information Carrier

was deleted.

 

2) New entity

        E84 Information Carrier

was declared.

 

3) The property

E8 Acquisition. P22 transferred title to (acquired title to): E39 Actor

 has been renamed to :

E8 Acquisition. P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor

 

4) The property

E10 Transfer of Custody. P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody): E39 Actor

 has been renamed to :

E10 Transfer of Custody. P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor

 

5) The property

E10 Transfer of Custody. P29 custody received by (received custody): E39 Actor

 has been renamed to :

E10 Transfer of Custody. P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor

 

6) The property

E10 Transfer of Custody. P30 transferred custody of (custody changed by): E19 Physical Object

has been redirected and renamed to :

E10 Transfer of Custody. P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through): E18 Physical Thing

 

7) The property

E16 Measurement. P40 observed dimension (was observed): E54 Dimension

 has been renamed to :

E16 Measurement. P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension

 

8) The property

E19 Physical Object. P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition

has been redirected to:

E18 Physical Thing. P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition

 

9) The property

E52 Time-Span. P79 begins at qualify: E62 String

has been renamed to :

E52 Time-Span. P79 beginning is qualified by: E62 String

 

10) The property

E52 Time-Span. P80 ends at qualify: E62 String

has been renamed to :

E52 Time-Span. P80 end is qualified by: E62 String

 

11) The property

E54 Dimension. P91 unit: E58 Measurement Unit

has been renamed to :

E54 Dimension. P91 has unit (is unit of): E58 Measurement Unit

 

12) The property

E78 Collection. P109 is curated by (curates): E39 Actor

has been renamed to :

E78 Collection. P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of): E39 Actor

 

13) The property

E79 Part Addition. P110 added to (was augmented by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

has been renamed to :

E79 Part Addition. P110 augmented (was augmented by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

 

14) The property

E80 Part Removal. P112 removed from (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

has been renamed to :

E80 Part Removal. P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

 

15) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P114 equal in time: E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity

 

16) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P115 finishes (finished-by): E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity

 

17) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P116 starts (started-by): E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity

 

18) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P117 during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity

 

19) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P118 overlaps in time (overlapped-by in time): E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity

 

20) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P119 meets in time (met-by in time): E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity

 

21) The property

E2 Temporal Entity. P120 before (after): E2 Temporal Entity

has been renamed to :

E2 Temporal Entity. P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity

 

22) The property

E81 Transformation. P123 resulted in (was resulted on): E77 Persistent Item

has been renamed to :

E81 Transformation. P123 resulted in (resulted from): E77 Persistent Item

 

23) The property

E7 Activity. P125 used general object (was used for): E55 Type

has been renamed to :

E7 Activity. P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type

 

24) The property

E11 Modification. P126 employed (was employed by): E57 Material

has been renamed to :

E11 Modification. P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material

 

25) The property

E23 Information Carrier. P128 is carried of (is materialized by): E73 Information Object

has been redirected and renamed to :

E24 Physical Man-Made thing. P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object

 

26) The property

E36 Visual Item. P138 visualizes (has visualization): E1 CRM Entity

has been renamed to :

E36 Visual Item. P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity

 

27) The property

E41 Appellation. P139 also represented: E41 Appellation

has been renamed to :

E41 Appellation. P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation

 

28) The property

                P3 has note

has been declared as superproperty of

                P79 beginning is qualified by

                P80 end is qualified by

 

29) The property

                P11 had participant (participated in)

was declared as superproperty of

                P14 carried out by (performed)

                P96 by mother (gave birth)

P99 dissolved (was dissolvedby)

 

30) The property

                P12 occured in the presence of (was present at)

was declared as superproperty of

                P11 had participant (participated in)

P16 used specific object (was used for)

P25 moved (moved by)

P31 has modified (was modified by)

P33 used specific technique (was used by)

P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)

P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)

 

31) The property:

P15 was influenced by (influenced)

was declared as superproperty of

                P16 used specific object (was used for)

                P17 was motivated by (motivated)

                P33 used specific technique (was used by)

                P134 continued (was continued by)

                P136 was based on (supported type creation)

 

32) The property:

                E40 Legal Body. consists of (belongs to): E40 Legal Body

was deleted

 

33) The property

                P105.2 has note: E62 String

was deleted

 

34) New property

E39 Actor. P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation.

It was declared as subproperty of

E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation

 

Amendments to version 3.4.1

 

Introduction and Scope Notes for classes E21 – E84 have been revised, and 2 new paragraphs were inserted

(CIDOC CRM Class Declarations and CIDOC CRM Property Declarations).

 

Amendments to version 3.4.2

 

Scope Notes for all entities and properties have been revised, 2 new properties was declared, 1 property was redirected and two properties was renamed:

 

 

1) New property

E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity

It was declared as superproperty of

E14 Condition Assessment. P34 concerned (was assessed by): E18 Physical Thing

E15 Identifier Assignment. P36 registered (was registered by): E19 Physical Object

E16 Measurement. P39 measured (was measured by): E70 Thing

E17 Type Assignment. P41 classified (was classified by): E1 CRM Entity

 

2) New property

E13 Attribute Assignment. P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity

It was declared as superproperty of

E14 Condition Assessment. P35 has identified (identified by): E3 Condition State

          E15 Identifier Assignment. P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Object Identifier

          E15 Identifier Assignment. P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Object Identifier

E16. Measurement. P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension

E17 Type Assignment. P42 assigned (was assigned by): E55 Type

 

3) The Property:

                E6 Destruction. P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E19 Physical Object

has been redirected to:

                E6 Destruction. P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Thing

 

4) The property:

                E8 Acquisition. P23 transferred title from (surrendered title of): E39 Actor

has been renamed to:

                E8 Acquisition. P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor

 

5) The property:

                E8 Acquisition. P24 transferred title of (changed ownership by): E18 Physical Thing

has been renamed to:

                E8 Acquisition. P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E18 Physical Thing

 

Amendments to version 3.4.9

The property

                105.1 has type:E55 Type

was deleted

 

Amendments to version 4.2

(This amendments list has been added in version 4.2.2 on 11/03/2008  because it was omitted in the due version 4.2)

 

In the 11th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 which tool place in Zagreb Croatia on May 25th and 27th, 2005 the following decisions have been taken:

 

1) Stuff has been renamed in Thing, thus

E18 Physical Stuff

has been renamed to:

                E18 Physical Thing

 

E24 Physical Man-Made Stuff

has been renamed to:

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

 

 

E70 Stuff

has been renamed to:

E70 Thing

 

E71 Man-Made Stuff

has been renamed to:

E71 Man-Made Thing

 

2) From compounds with Event the word Event has been removed, thus

E8 Acquisition Event

has been renamed to:

E8 Acquisition


E11 Modification Event

has been renamed to:

E11 Modification

E12 Production Event

has been renamed to:

E12 Production

E16 Measurement Event

has been renamed to:

E16 Measurement

E65 Creation Event

has been renamed to:

E65 Creation

E66 Formation Event

has been renamed to:

E66 Formation

 

Amendments to version 4.2.1

In the 14th joined meeting of the CIDOC CRM SIG and ISO/TC46/SC4/WG9 which tool place in Crete, Greece on October 23-27, 2006 the following decisions have been taken:

 

1. The domain of the properties

            P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type

P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure

   has been changed from E11 Modification to E7 Activity

 

2. The scope note of E28 Conceptual Object has been changed 

 

New scope note:

 

This class comprises non-material products of our minds and information produced by humans with or without using technical devices that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation and historical implications.

 

Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as papers, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.

 

They cannot be destroyed as long as they exist on at least one carrier or in memory.

Their existence ends when the last carrier is lost. A greater distinction can be made between products having a clear identity, such as a specific text, or photographs, and the ideas and concepts shared and traded by groups of people.

 

Current scope note:

 

This class comprises non-material products of our minds, in order to allow for reasoning about their identity, circumstances of creation and historical implications.

 

Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object may be found on more than one particular carrier, such as papers, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.

 

They cannot be destroyed as long as they exist on at least one carrier or in memory. Their existence ends when the last carrier is lost. A greater distinction can be made between products having a clear identity, such as a specific text, or photographs, and the ideas and concepts shared and traded by groups of people.

P16 used specific object (was used for)

Became superproperty to of E7 Activity.P33 used specific technique (was used by):E29 Design or Procedure

P32 used general technique (was technique of)

Became subproperty of E7 Activity. P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type

 

P33 used specific technique (was used by)

Became subproperty E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing

 

P35 has identified (identified by)

The name of P35B is changed to P35 has identified (was identified by)

 

 

Amendments to version 4.2.2

In 15th  CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting, which took place in Edinburgh  in 9 – 12 July 2007 the following changes tool place.

 

 

Changes to entities:

 

 

E1 CRM Entity

 

In the second paragraph of the scope note, in the item numbered 1, the phrase “, and in particular by a preferred identifier” has been added.

 

 

E3 Condition State

 

In the second paragraph of the scope note the “It” has been substituted by “An instance of this class”

 

E4 Period

The first and the last sentence of the 4th  paragraph of the scope note has been changed.  

From :

Artistic style may be modelled as E4 Period.There are two different conceptualisations of ‘style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is consistent with  E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

To:

 

There are two different conceptualisations of ‘artistic style’, defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.

E15 Identifier Assignment

 

The scope note and the examples are changed and the property P36 is deleted and P142 is added.

 

BEFORE

 

Scope note:     This class comprises actions assigning or deassigning object identifiers.

 

Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers and Inventory Numbers. Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of an object in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an object.

 

Examples:

      • replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens         

 

Properties:

P36 registered (was registered by): E19 Physical Object

P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Object Identifier

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Object Identifier

 

 

AFTER

 

 

Scope note:     This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.

 

Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.

 

The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.

 

Examples:

      • Replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athen
      • Assigning the author-uniform title heading “Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832. Faust. 1. Theil.” for a work (E28)
      • On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E42,E82) to Guillaume de Machaut (E21)

 

Properties:

P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Identifier

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Identifier

P142 used constituent (was used in): E41 Appellation

E29 Design or Procedure

The 1st paragraph of the scope note changed:

 “This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that   result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Thing.”

 

To:

“This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that may result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Thing.”

 

E33 Linguistic Object

A third paragraph added to the scope note text which is the following:

 

“The text of an instance of E33 Linguistic Object can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String”

 

E41 Appellation

 

The Appellation became subclass of E28 Conceptual Object and super class of E51 Contact Point

 

E42 Identifier

 

The name of E42 is changed from E42 Object Identifier to E42 Identifier. Also the scope note and the examples are  changed

BEFORE:

 

This class comprises codes assigned to objects in order to identify them uniquely within the context of one or more organisations.

 

Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Object Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents.

Examples:              

    • MM.GE.195
    • 13.45.1976
    • DPS_1000
    • OXCMS: 1997.4.1

 

 

 

AFTER:

“This class comprises codes assigned to instances of E1 CRM Entity in order to identify them uniquely and permanently within the context of one or more organisations. Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents

Examples:

    • “MM.GE.195”
    • “13.45.1976”
    • “OXCMS: 1997.4.1”
    • ISSN “0041-5278”
    • ISRC “FIFIN8900116”
    • Shelf mark “Res 8 P 10”
    • Guillaume de Machaut (1300?-1377)” [a controlled personal name heading that follows the French rules]

E51 Contact Point

 

The subclass of E51 is changed from E77 Persistent Item became E41 Appellation

 

E54 Dimension

The first sentence of the second paragraph of the scope note is changed

BEFORE

Scope note:     This class comprises quantifiable properties that are measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by numerical values.

 

An instance of E54 Dimension is thought to be the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm.

 

AFTER

 

Scope note:     This class comprises quantifiable properties that are measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by numerical values.

 

An instance of E54 Dimension is regarded as the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm.

 

E74 Group

The scope note is changed

 

From

 This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of two or more people that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship

 

A gathering of people becomes an E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modeled as membership in an E74 Group (cf. HumanML markup).

Examples:              

§         the impressionists

§         the Navajo

§         the Greeks

§         the peace protestors in New York City on February 15 2003

§         Exxon-Mobil

To:

 

This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of two or more people that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship. In the wider sense this class also comprises official positions which used to be regarded in certain contexts as one actor, independent of the current holder of the office, such as the president of a country.

 

A gathering of people becomes an E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modeled as membership in an E74 Group (cf. HumanML markup). Married couples and other concepts of family are regarded as particular examples of E74 Group.

 

Examples:              

§         the impressionists

§         the Navajo

§         the Greeks

§         the peace protestors in New York City on February 15 2003

§         Exxon-Mobil

§         King Solomon and his wives

§         The President of the Swiss Confederation

E85, E80 have been added

E85 Joining

 

Subclass of:          E7 Activity

 

Scope note:           This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E49 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.

 

Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position.

                               

Examples:              

§         The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689

§         The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985

 

Properties:

P143 joined (was joined by): E39 Actor

P144 joined with (gained member by) E74 Group

 

E80 Leaving

 

Subclass of:          E7 Activity

 

Scope note:          This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E49 Actor to be separated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.

                               

                             Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position.

 

                               

Examples:              

      • The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702
      • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797

Properties:

P145 separated (left by) E39 Actor

P146 separated from (lost member by) E74 Group

 

P3 has note

 

The scope note is changed

BEFORE:

This property is a container for all informal descriptions about an object that cannot be expressed in terms of CRM constructs.

 

In particular it captures the characterisation of the item itself, its internal structures, appearance etc.

Like property P2 has type (is type of), this property is a consequence of the restricted focus of the CRM. The aim is not to capture, in a structured form, everything that can be said about an item; indeed, the CRM formalism is not regarded as sufficient to express everything that can be said. Good practice requires use of distinct note fields for different aspects of a characterisation. The P2 has type (is type of) property of P3 has note allows differentiation of specific notes, e.g. “construction”, “decoration” etc.

An item may have many notes, but a note is attached to a specific item.

 

AFTER :

This property is a container for all informal descriptions about an object that have not been expressed in terms of CRM constructs.

 

In particular it captures the characterisation of the item itself, its internal structures, appearance etc.

Like property P2 has type (is type of), this property is a consequence of the restricted focus of the CRM. The aim is not to capture, in a structured form, everything that can be said about an item; indeed, the CRM formalism is not regarded as sufficient to express everything that can be said. Good practice requires use of distinct note fields for different aspects of a characterisation. The P3.1 has type property of P3 has note allows differentiation of specific notes, e.g. “construction”, “decoration” etc.

An item may have many notes, but a note is attached to a specific item.

P36

Is deleted

P37 assigned (was assigned by)

The scope note of P37 is changed

 

BEFORE

 

Scope note:    This property records the identifier that was assigned to an object in an Identifier Assignment activity. P47 is identified by (identifies) - a property of an E19 Physical Object - is a short cut of the fully developed path from E19 Physical Object through P36, E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Object Identifier. The same identifier may be assigned on more than one occasion. An Object Identifier might be created prior to an assignment.

 

 

AFTER

Scope note:     This property records the identifier that was assigned to an item in an Identifier Assignment activity. The same identifier may be assigned on more than one occasion. An Identifier might be created prior to an assignment.

 

 

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)

The scope note of P38 is changed

 

BEFORE

Scope note:     This property records the identifier that was deassigned from an object.

Deassignment of an identifier may be necessary when an object is taken out of an inventory, a new numbering system is introduced or objects are merged or split up. The same identifier may be deassigned on more than one occasion.

 

 

AFTER

Scope note:     This property records the identifier that was deassigned from an instance of E1 CRM Entity.

Deassignment of an identifier may be necessary when an item is taken out of an inventory, a new numbering system is introduced or items are merged or split up.The same identifier may be deassigned on more than one occasion.

 

P47 is identified by(identifies

Is deleted

 

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of

The domain, range and the scope note of P48 is changed

BEFORE

Domain:                   E19 Physical Object

Range:                     E42 Object Identifier

Subproperty of:        E19 Physical Object. P47 is identified by (identifies): E42 Object Identifier

Quantification:         many to one (0,1:0,n)

 

Scope note:     This property records the preferred E42 Object Identifier that was used to identify the E19 Physical Object at the time this property was recorded.

 

More than one preferred identifier may have been assigned to an object during its history.

Use of this property requires an external mechanism for assigning temporal validity to the respective CRM instance.

 

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of), like P47 is identified by (identifies) is a shortcut for the path from E19 Physical Object through P36 registered (was registered by), E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Object Identifier.

AFTER

Domain:               E1 CRM Entity

Range:                 E42 Identifier

Subproperty of:   E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation

Quantification:     many to one (0,1:0,n)

 

Scope note:     This property records the preferred E42 Identifier that was used to identify an instance of E1 CRM Entity at the time this property was recorded.

 

More than one preferred identifier may have been assigned to an item over time.

Use of this property requires an external mechanism for assigning temporal validity to the respective CRM instance.

 

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of), is a shortcut for the path from E1 CRM Entity through P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by), E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Identifier. The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be better expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment using the P2 has type property.

 

P69 is associated with

 

A property is added to this property

 

Properties:             P69.1 has type: E55 Type

 

P139 has alternative form

The scope note is changed and a property is added

 

BEFORE

Scope note:           This property establishes a relationship of synonymy between two instances of E41 Appellation.

 

The synonymy applies to all cases of use of an instance of E41 Appellation. Multiple names assigned to an object, which, are not always synonymous should be instantiated as repeated values of the “is identified by “ property. This property is symmetric but not transitive

 

AFTER

Scope note:      This property establishes a relationship of synonymy between two instances of E41 Appellation, independent from any item identified by them. The property is a dynamic, asymmetric relationship, where the domain expresses a derivative, if such a direction can be established. Otherwise, the relationship is symmetric.

 

The synonymy applies to all cases of use of an instance of E41 Appellation. Multiple names assigned to an object, which, are not always synonymous should be instantiated as repeated values of the “is identified by “ property. This property is not transitive.

 

P139.1 has type allows the type of derivation, such as “transliteration from Latin 1 to ASCII” be refined.

 

Properties:      P139.1 has type: E55 Type

 

 

 

P142, P143, P144, P145, P146, P148

Six new properties have been added

 

P142 used constituent (was used in)

 

Domain:                E15 Identifier Assignment

Range:                  E41 Appellation

Subproperty of:    E7 Activity. P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing

 

Quantification:      (0:n,0:n)

 

Scope note:           This property associates the event of assigning an instance of E42 Identifier to an entity, with  the instances of E41 Appellation that were used as elements of the identifier.

Examples:              

§         On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E15) used constituent “Guillaume, de Machaut” (E82 Actor Appellation)

§         On June 1, 2001 assigning the personal name heading “Guillaume, de Machaut, ca. 1300-1377” (E15) used constituent “ca. 1300-1377” (E49 Time Appellation)

P143 joined (was joined by)

 

Domain:                 E85 Joining

Range:                   E39 Actor

Subproperty of:    E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor

 

Quantification:      many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that becomes member of a E74 Group in an E85 Joining.

 

 

Examples:              

§         The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 joined Sir Isaac Newton

§         The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 joined  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

P144 joined with (gained member by)

 

Domain:                 E85 Joining

Range:                   E74 Group

Subproperty of:    E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor

Quantification:      many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:      This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.

Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.

 

Examples:              

§         The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 joined with the Convention Parliament

§         The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 joined with the office of Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

P145 separated (left by)

 

Domain:                E86 Leaving

Range:                  E39 Actor

Subproperty of:    E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor

Quantification:      many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that leaves an instance of E74 Group through an instance of E86 Leaving.

 

Examples:              

§         The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 separated Sir Isaac Newton

§         George Washington’s leaving office in 1797 separated George Washington

P146 separated from (lost member by)

 

Domain:                 E86 Leaving

Range:                   E74 Group

Subproperty of:    E5 Event. P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor

Quantification:      many to many, necessary (1,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property identifies the instance of E74 Group an instance of E39 Actor leaves through an instance of E86 Leaving.

 

Although a Leaving activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which leaving one E74 Group implies leaving another E74 Group as well.

 

Examples:             

      • The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702 separated from the Convention Parliament
      • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797 separated from the office of President of the United States

P148 is identified by (identifies)

 

Domain:                 E28 Conceptual Object

Range:                    E75 Conceptual Object Appellation

Subproperty:         E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation

Quantification:      many to many (0,n:0,n)

                                

Scope note:      This property identifies a name used specifically to identify an E28 Conceptual Object.

 

This property is a specialisation of P1 is identified by (identifies) is identified by.

 

Examples:              

§         The publication „Germanisches Nationalmuseum (GNM), Fuehrer durch die Sammlungen” (broschiert), Prestl 1995 (E73) is identified by ISBN 3-7913-1418-1 (E75)

Amendments to version 4.2.4

In 16th  CIDOC CRM Harmonization meeting which took place in Nuremberg on  4 – 7 December 2007, the following changes took place

 

Delete the word “domain”

From the introduction, the characterization of the CRM ontology as a domain ontology is deleted.

The text was changed as:

 

BEFORE

 

Applied Form

 

The CRM is a domain ontology in the sense used in computer science. ………..

 

AFTER

Applied Form

The CRM is an ontology in the sense used in computer science. ……..

 

E15

 

The first letter of the first word in the first example was capitalized.

 

BEFORE

·         replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens

AFTER

·         replacement of the inventory number TA959a by GE34604 for a 17th century lament cloth at the Museum Benaki, Athens

E42

The first sentence of the scope note is changed

BEFORE

This class comprises codes assigned to instances…

AFTER

This class comprices strings or codes assigned to instances….

E85 and E86

The scope note is changed to include marriage as a social organization and also to correct misspelled class numbers and names.

 

BEFORE

 

E85 Joining

 

Subclass of:      E7 Activity

 

Scope note:     This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E49 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.

 

Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position.

                               

Examples:              

§         The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689

§         The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985

 

Properties:

P143 joined (was joined by): E39 Actor

P144 joined with (gained member by) E74 Group

 

 

E80 Leaving

 

Subclass of:          E7 Activity

 

Scope note:           This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E49 Actor to be separated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.

                               

                                Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position.

 

                               

Examples:              

      • The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702
      • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797

Properties:

P145 separated (left by) E39 Actor

P146 separated from (lost member by) E74 Group

 

 

AFTER

 

E85 Joining

Subclass of:  E7 Activity

Scope note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.
Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, marriage, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position.

Examples:

  • The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament of 1689
  • The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985

 

Properties:

P143 joined (was joined by): E39 Actor
P144 joined with (gained member by) E74 Group

 

E86 Leaving

Subclass of:  E7 Activity

Scope note:  This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor to be disassociated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.
Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, divorce, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position.

Examples:

  • The end of Sir Isaac Newton’s duty as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge to the Convention Parliament in 1702
  • George Washington’s leaving office in 1797

 

Properties:

P145 disassociated (left by) E39 Actor
P146 disassociated from (lost member by) E74 Group

 

 

Amendments to version 4.2.5

The following changes have been made to the 17th SIG meeting May 12-15 at Heraklion Crete

Changes in the terminology

In the terminology there were two instance paragraphs. In this version they have been merged.

 

BEFORE

 

instance

An instance of a class is an item that has the traits that match the criteria of the intension of the class. 

For example:

The painting known as the “The Mona Lisa” is an instance of the class Physical Man Made Object.

 

An instance of a property is a factual relation between an instance of the domain and an instance of the range of the property that matches the criteria of the intension of the property.

 

For example:

“The Louvre is current owner of The Mona Lisa” is an instance of the property “is current owner of”.

 

 

instance

An instance of a class is a real world item that fulfils the criteria of the intension of the class. Note, that the number of instances declared for a class in an information system is typically less than the total in the real world. For example, you are an instance of Person, but you are not mentioned in all information systems describing Persons.

 

 

AFTER

 

instance

An instance of a class is a real world item that fulfils the criteria of the intension of the class. Note, that the number of instances declared for a class in an information system is typically less than the total in the real world. For example, you are an instance of Person, but you are not mentioned in all information systems describing Persons.

For example:

The painting known as the “The Mona Lisa” is an instance of the class Physical Man Made Object.

 

An instance of a property is a factual relation between an instance of the domain and an instance of the range of the property that matches the criteria of the intension of the property.

 

For example:

“The Louvre is current owner of The Mona Lisa” is an instance of the property “is current owner of”.

 

E89, E90 have been added:

E89 Propositional Object

 

Subclass of:          E28 Conceptual Object

Superclass of:       E73 Information Object

                                E30 Right

 

Scope note:           This class comprises immaterial items, including but not limited to stories, plots, procedural prescriptions, algorithms, laws of physics or images that are, or represent in some sense, sets of propositions about real or mental things and that are documented as single units or serve as topic of discourse.

                               

This class also comprises items that are “about” something in the sense of a subject. In the wider sense, this class includes expressions of psychological value such as non-figural art and musical themes. However, conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E89 Propositional Object. This should not be confused with the definition of a type, which is indeed an instance of E89 Propositional Object.

 

Examples:              

      • Maxwell’s Equations
      • The ideational contents of Aristotle’s book entitled ‘Metaphysics’ as rendered in the Greek texts translated in … Oxford edition…
      • The underlying prototype of any “no-smoking” sign (E36)
      • The common ideas of the plots of the movie "The Seven Samurai" by Akira Kurosawa and the movie “The Magnificent Seven” by John Sturges
      • The image content of the photo of the Allied Leaders at Yalta 1945 (E38)

               

Properties:

P148 has component (is component of): E89 Propositional Object

P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

(P67.1 has type: E55 Type)

P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity

 

E90 Symbolic Object

 

Subclass of:          E28 Conceptual Object

                                E72 Legal Object

Superclass of:  E73 Information Object

                                E41 Appellation

 

Scope note:          

This class comprises identifiable symbols and any aggregation of symbols, such as characters, identifiers, traffic signs, emblems, texts, data sets, images, musical scores, multimedia objects, computer program code or mathematical formulae that have an objectively recognizable structure and that are documented as single units.

 

It includes sets of signs of any nature, which may serve to designate something, or to communicate some propositional content.

 

An instance of E90 Symbolic Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. An instance of E90 Symbolic Object may or may not have a specific meaning, for example an arbitrary character string.

 

Examples:              

      • ‘ecognizabl’
      • The “no-smoking” sign (E36)
      • ‘BM000038850.JPG’ (E75)
      • image BM000038850.JPG from the Clayton Herbarium in London (E38)
      • The distribution of form, tone and colour found on Leonardo da Vinci’s painting named “Mona Lisa” (E38)
      • The Italian text of Dante’s “Divina Commedia” as found in the authoritative critical edition La Commedia secondo l’antica vulgata a cura di Giorgio Petrocchi, Milano: Mondadori, 1966-67 (= Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, Edizione Nazionale a cura della Società Dantesca Italiana, VII, 1-4)    (E33)

Properties:

P106 is composed of (forms part of): E90 Symbolic Object

 

P148  has been changed

 

BEFORE

 

P148 is identified by (identifies)

 

Domain:                 E28 Conceptual Object

Range:                   E75 Conceptual Object Appellation

Subproperty:         E1 CRM Entity. P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation

Quantification:      many to many (0,n:0,n)

                                

Scope note:           This property identifies a name used specifically to identify an E28 Conceptual Object.

 

This property is a specialisation of P1 is identified by (identifies) is identified by.

 

Examples:              

§         The publication „Germanisches Nationalmuseum (GNM), Fuehrer durch die Sammlungen” (broschiert), Prestl 1995 (E73) is identified by ISBN 3-7913-1418-1 (E75)

AFTER

 

P148 has component (is component of)

Domain:                 E89 Propositional Object

Range:                    E89 Propositional Object

Superproperty of:

Subproperty of:                   

 

Quantification:      (0:n,0:n)

 

Scope note:           This property associates an instance of E89 Propositional Object with a structural part of it that is by itself an instance of E89 Propositional Object.

 

Examples:              The Italian text of Dante’s textual work entitled “Divina Commedia” (E33) P148 has component The Italian text of Dante’s textual work entitled “Inferno” (E33)

P67, P129 changed domain

BEFORE

E73 Information Object.P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

E73 Information Object.P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity

AFTER

E89 Propositional Object.P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity

E89 Propositional Object.P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity

 

P106 changed domain and range

BEFORE

E73 Information Object. P106 is composed of (forms part of): E73 Information Object

 

AFTER

E90 Symbolic Object. P106 is composed of (forms part of): E90 Symbolic Object

 

Changes in the scope note of E7 Activity P16

Changes in the scope note of E7 Activity P16 have been made for the name use and new examples have been added to both of them.

 

E7 Activity

 

Subclass of:          E5 Event

Superclass of:       E8 Acquisition

E9 Move

E10 Transfer of Custody

E11 Modification

E13 Attribute Assignment

E65 Creation

E66 Formation

E85 Joining

E86 Leaving

 

Scope note:           This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.

 

This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.

 

Examples:

      • the Battle of Stalingrad
      • the Yalta Conference
      • my birthday celebration 28-6-1995
      • the writing of “Faust” by Goethe (E65)
      • the formation of the Bauhaus 1919 (E66)
      • calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ ‘Quyunjig’ by the people of Iraq

Properties:

P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor

(P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)

P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity

P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing

(P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)

P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity

P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing

(P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E7 Activity

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type

P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type

P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure

P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type

P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity

P16 used specific object (was used for)

 

Domain: E7 Activity

Range:                    E70 Thing

Subproperty of: E5 Event. P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77   Persistent Item

E7 Activity. P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity

Superproperty of:E7 Activity.P33 used specific technique (was used by):E29 Design or Procedure

E15 Identifier Assignment. P142 used constituent (was used in):E41 Appellation

Quantification:     many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an E7 Activity.

 

This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer.

 

Another example is the use of a particular name by a particular group of people over some span to identify a thing, such as a settlement. In this case, the physical carriers of this name are at least the people understanding its use.

 

Examples:             

§         the writing of this scope note (E7) used specific object Nicholas Crofts’ computer (E22) mode of use Typing Tool; Storage Medium (E55)

§         the people of Iraq calling the place identified by TGN ‘7017998’ (E7) used specific object Quyunjig’ (E44) mode of use Current; Vernacular (E55)

 

 

Properties:             P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type

 

Changes to E54

BEFORE

 

E54 Dimension (old)

(former E38)

 

Subclass of:          E1 CRM Entity

 

Scope note:           This class comprises quantifiable properties that are measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by numerical values.

 

An instance of E54 Dimension is regarded as the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm. The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation. It is recommended to record all numerical approximations of instances of E54 Dimension as intervals of indeterminacy. Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension as appropriate.

 

Examples:              

§         currency: £26.00

§         length: 3.9-4.1 cm

§         diameter 26 mm

§         weight 150 lbs

§         density: 0.85 gm/cc

§         luminescence: 56 ISO lumens

§         tin content: 0.46 %

§         taille au garot: 5 hands

§         calibrated C14 date: 2460-2720 years, etc

 

 

Properties:

P90 has value: E60 Number

P91 has unit (is unit of): E58 Measurement Unit

 

AFTER

 

E54 Dimension   

(former E38)

 

Subclass of:          E1 CRM Entity

 

Scope note:           This class comprises quantifiable properties that can be measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by values, i.e. points or regions in a mathematical or conceptual space, such as natural or real numbers, RGB values etc.

 

An instance of E54 Dimension represents the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm. The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation of the values of an instance of E54 Dimension. If the true values belong to a non-discrete space, such as spatial distances, it is recommended to record them as approximations by intervals or regions of indeterminacy enclosing the assumed true values. For instance, a length of 5 cm may be recorded as 4.5-5.5 cm, according to the precision of the respective observation. Note, that interoperability of values described in different units depends critically on the representation as value regions.

 

Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension as appropriate.

 

Examples:              

      • the height of silver cup 232
      • The RGB value matrix of my digital image IMG_0025 from 4-5-2007
      • the wingspan of my stuffed chaffinch ‘Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758’
      • the calibrated C14 date of  bone splinter AC-1983-04532
      • The number of coins in the silver hoard XXXX

 

 

Properties:

P90 has value: E60 Number

P91 has unit (is unit of): E58 Measurement Unit

 

Changes to the text of E28

BEFORE

E28 Conceptual Object

(former E24)

 

Subclass of:          E71 Man-Made Thing

Superclass of:       E30 Right

E55 Type

E73 Information Object

 

Scope note:           This class comprises non-material products of our minds and information produced by humans with or without using technical devices that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation and historical implications.

 

Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as papers,

electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.

 

They cannot be destroyed as long as they exist on at least one carrier or in memory.

Their existence ends when the last carrier is lost. A greater distinction can be made between products having a clear identity, such as a specific text, or photographs, and the ideas and concepts shared and traded by groups of people.

 

 

Examples:              

      • Beethoven’s “Ode an die Freude” (Ode to Joy), (E73)
      • the definition of “ontology” in the Oxford English Dictionary
      • the knowledge about the victory at Marathon carried by the famous runner

 

Properties :           

P148 is identified by (identifies) : E75 Conceptual Object Appellation

 

AFTER

E28 Conceptual Object

(former E24)

 

Subclass of:          E71 Man-Made Thing

Superclass of:       E89 Propositional Object

                             E90 Symbolic Object

E55 Type

 

Scope note:           This class comprises non-material products of our minds and other human

produced data that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation or historical implication. The production of such information may have been supported by the use of technical devices such as cameras or computers.

 

Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as paper, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.

 

They cannot be destroyed. They exist as long as they can be found on at least one carrier or in at least one human memory. Their existence ends when the last carrier and the last memory are lost.

 

 

Examples:              

      • Beethoven’s “Ode an die Freude” (Ode to Joy), (E73)
      • the definition of “ontology” in the Oxford English Dictionary
      • the knowledge about the victory at Marathon carried by the famous runner

 

Changes in the domain, range and superproperty of P137

BEFORE

P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies) (old)

 

Domain:                 E55 Type

Range:                    E1 CRM Entity

Quantification:      many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property allows an item to be declared as an example of an E55 Type or taxon.

 

The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of this example to the Type, such as "prototypical", "archetypical" "lectotype", etc. The taxonomic role "lectotype" is not associated with the Type Creation (E83) itself, but selected in a later phase.

 

Examples:              

§         Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.’ (E55) is exemplified by Object BM000098044 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) in the taxonomic role lectotype

 

Properties:             P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type

 

AFTER

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) (NEW)

 

Domain:                 E1 CRM Entity

Range:                   E55 Type

Quantification:      many to many (0,n:0,n)

subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity. P2 has type: E55 Type

 

Scope note:           This property allows an item to be declared as a particular example of an E55 Type or taxon.

 

The P137.1 in the taxonomic role property of P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) allows differentiation of taxonomic roles. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of this example to the Type, such as "prototypical", "archetypical", "lectotype", etc. The taxonomic role "lectotype" is not associated with the Type Creation (E83) itself, but selected in a later phase.

 

Examples:              

§         Object BM000098044 of the Clayton Herbarium (E20) exemplifies Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. (E55) in the taxonomic role lectotype

 

Properties:             P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type

 

P39

Changes in the range and the scope note of P39

 

BEFORE

P39 measured (was measured by):

 

Domain:                 E16 Measurement

Range:                   E70 Thing

Subproperty of:    E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity

Quantification:     many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property records the E70 Thing that was the subject of an instance of E16 Measurement

Event.Thing may be measured more than once. Both material and immaterial sThing may be measured, e.g. the number of words in a text.

 

Examples:              

§         31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) measured silver cup 232 (E22)

AFTER

P39 measured (was measured by):  

 

Domain:                 E16 Measurement

Range:                   E1 CRM Entity

Subproperty of:    E13 Attribute Assignment. P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity

Quantification:     many to one, necessary (1,1:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property associates an instance of E16 Measurement with the instance of E1 CRM Entity to which it applied. An instance of E1 CRM Entity may be measured more than once. Material and immaterial things and processes may be measured, e.g. the number of words in a text, or the duration of an event.

 

Examples:              

§         31 August 1997 measurement of height of silver cup 232 (E16) measured silver cup 232 (E22)

 

Amendments to version 4.2.5a

The range and the scope note of P20 has been changed

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)

 

Domain:                 E7 Activity

Range:                   E5 Event

Quantification:     many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property identifies the relationship between a preparatory activity and the event it is intended to be preparation for.

                               

This includes activities, orders and other organisational actions, taken in preparation for other activities or events.


P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) implies that an activity succeeded in achieving its aim. If it does not succeed, such as the setting of a trap that did not catch anything, one may document the unrealized intention using P21 had general purpose (was purpose of):E55 Type and/or  P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure.

 

Examples:              

§         Van Eyck’s pigment grinding in 1432 (E7) had specific purpose the painting of the Ghent alter piece (E12)

 

The scope note of P21 has been changed and an example is added

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)

 

Domain:                 E7 Activity

Range:                   E55 Type

Quantification:     many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property describes an intentional relationship between an E7 Activity and some general goal or purpose.

 

This may involve activities intended as preparation for some type of activity or event. P21had general purpose (was purpose of) differs from P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) in that no occurrence of an event is implied as the purpose.

 

Examples:              

§          Van Eyck’s pigment grinding (E7) had general purpose painting (E55)

§          The setting of trap 2742 on May 17th 1874 (E7)  had general purpose Catching Moose (E55) (Activity type)

 

 

P105 has been superclass of P52

 

The scope note of P105 has been changed

P105 right held by (has right on)

 

Domain:                 E72 Legal Object

Range:                   E39 Actor

Superproperty of: P52 has current owner (is current owner of)

Quantification:                      many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property identifies the E39 Actor who holds the instances of E30 Right to an E72 Legal Object.

                                It is a superproperty of P52 has current owner (is current owner of) because ownership is a right that is held on the owned object.

 

P105 right held by (has right on) is a shortcut of the fully developed path from E72 Legal Object through P104 is subject to (applies to), E30 Right, P75 possesses (is possessed by) to E39 Actor.

 

Examples:              

§         J.M.Barrie’s Peter Pan (E73) right held by Great Ormond Street Hospital (E40)

 

Proofreading:

  1. 2nd paragraph of chapter “APPLIED FORM”

 

Before:

Although the definition of the CRM provided here is complete, it is an intentionally compact and concise presentation of the CRM’s 86 classes and 132 unique properties. It does not attempt to articulate the inheritance of properties by subclasses throughout the class hierarchy (this would require the declaration of several thousand properties, as opposed to 132)

 

After:

Although the definition of the CRM provided here is complete, it is an intentionally compact and concise presentation of the CRM’s 86 classes and 137 unique properties. It does not attempt to articulate the inheritance of properties by subclasses throughout the class hierarchy (this would require the declaration of several thousand properties, as opposed to 137)

 

 

 

  1. In chapter “Terminology” the paragraph that gives the definition of the instance (page v)

 

Before:

An instance of a class is a real world item that fulfils the criteria of the intension of the class. Note, that the number of instances declared for a class in an information system is typically less than the total in the real world. For example, you are an instance of Person, but you are not mentioned in all information systems describing Persons.

For example:

The painting known as the “The Mona Lisa” is an instance of the class Physical Man Made Object.

 

                After:

An instance of a class is a real world item that fulfils the criteria of the intension of the class. Note, that  the number of instances declared for a class in an information system is typically less than the total in the real world. For example, you are an instance of Person, but you are not mentioned in all information systems describing Persons.

                For example:

The painting known as the “The Mona Lisa” is an instance of the class Man Made Object.

 

Amendments to version 4.3

 

P68 usually employs (is usually employed by)

 

The name of P68 usually employs (is usually employed by) was changed from P68 usually employs (is usually employed by) to P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by):

 

FROM:

 

P68 usually employs (is usually employed by):

 

Domain:                 E29 Design or Procedure

Range:                   E57 Material

Quantification:     many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property describes an E57 Material usually employed in an E29 Design or Procedure.

 

Designs and procedures commonly employ particular Materials. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented.

 

This property is not intended for the documentation of Materials that were required on a particular occasion when a Design or Procedure was executed.

 

Examples:              

procedure for soda glass manufacture (E29) usually employs soda (E57)

 

TO:

 

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by):

 

Domain:                E29 Design or Procedure

Range:                 E57 Material

Quantification:     many to many (0,n:0,n)

 

Scope note:           This property identifies an E57 Material foreseeen to be used by an E29 Design or Procedure.

 

E29 Designs and procedures commonly foresee the use of particular E57 Materials. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented.

 

This property is not intended for the documentation of E57 Materials that were used on a particular occasion when an instance of E29 Design or Procedure was executed.

 

Examples:              

§         procedure for soda glass manufacture (E29) foresees use of soda (E57)

§          

 

Compatibility

 

The text of compatibility was changed.

 

FROM:

 

Compatibility with the CRM

 

Users intending to take advantage of the semantic interoperability offered by the CRM may want to make parts of their data structures compatible with the CRM. The respective parts should pertain either to the associations by which users would like their data to be accessible in an integrated environment, or to contents intended for transport to other environments, so that the meaning encoded by its structure is preserved in another target system.

 

In that sense, the CRM is not aimed at proposing a complete matching of user documentation structures with the CRM, nor that a user should always implement all CRM concepts and associations; rather it is intended to leave room for all kinds of extensions to capture the richness of cultural information, but also for simplifications for reasons of economy.

 

Further, the CRM is a means to interpret structured information in a way, so that large amounts of data contents can be transformed or mediated automatically. As a consequence, the CRM aims not at resolving free text information into a formal logical form. In other terms, it does not intend to provide more structuring than the users have done before, and free text information does not fall under the scope of compatibility considerations. The CRM foresees however the associations to transport such information in relation to structured information.

 

The CRM is a formal ontology, expressible in terms of logic or a suitable knowledge representation language. Its concepts can be instantiated as sets of statements that form models of the assumed reality referred to in a structured document. Any encoding of CRM instances in a formal language that preserves the relations to the CRM classes, properties and inheritance rules among them is regarded a “CRM-compatible form”.

 

A part of a documentation structure is compatible with the CRM, if a deterministic logical algorithm can be found, that transforms any data correctly encoded in this structure into a CRM-compatible form without loss of meaning. No assumptions are made about the nature of this algorithm. It may in particular draw on other formal ontologies expressing background knowledge such as thesauri. The algorithm itself can only be found and verified intellectually by understanding the meaning intended by the designer of the data structure and the CRM concepts. By the term “correctly encoded” we mean that the data are encoded so that the meaning intended by the designer of the data structure is correctly applied to the intended meaning of the data.

 

Information system implementers may choose to provide export facilities of selected data into a CRM-compatible form. They may further choose to provide a service to access selected data by querying with CRM concepts. It is not regarded a loss of compatibility, if certain subclasses and subproperties of the CRM are not supported in such a service. In that case it is regarded essential that the services publishes the set of CRM concepts it supports.

 

TO:

 

Utility of CRM compatibility

 

 The goal of the CRM is to enable the integration of the largest number of information resources. Therefore it aims to provide the greatest flexibility of systems to become compatible, rather than imposing one particular solution.

 

Users intending to take advantage of the semantic interoperability offered by the CRM may want to make parts of their data structures compatible with the CRM. Compatibility may pertain either to the associations by which users would like their data to be accessible in an integrated environment, or to the contents intended for transport to other environments, allowing encoded meaning to be preserved in a target system.

 

The CRM does not require complete matching of all user documentation structures with the CRM, nor that systems should always implement all CRM concepts and associations; instead it leaves room both for extensions, needed to capture the full richness of cultural information, and for simplifications, required for reasons of economy.

 

Furthermore, the CRM provides a means of interpreting structured information so that large amounts of data can be transformed or mediated automatically. It does not require unstructured or semi-structured free text information to be analysed into a formal logical representation. In other words, it does not aim to provide more structure than users have previously provided. The interpretation of information in the form of free text falls outside the scope of compatibility considerations. The CRM does, however, allow free text information to be integrated with structured information.

 

The Information Integration Environment

 

The notion of CRM compatibility is based on interoperability. Interoperability is best defined on the basis of specific communication practices between information systems. Following current practice, we distinguish the following types of information integration environments pertaining to information systems:

 

1.        Local information systems. These are either collection management systems or content management systems that constitute institutional memories and are maintained by an institution. They are used for primary data entry, i.e. a relevant part of the information, be it data or metadata, is primary information in digital form that fulfils institutional needs.

 

2.        Integrated access systems. These provide an homogeneous access layer to multiple local systems.  The information they manage resides primarily on local systems. We distinguish between:

a.        Materialized access systems, which physically import data provided by local systems, using a data warehouse approach. Such systems may employ so-called metadata harvesting techniques or rely on data submission. Data may be transformed to respect the schema of the access system before being merged. 

b.       Mediation systems, [Gio Wiederholt] which send out queries, formulated according to a virtual global schema, to multiple local systems and then collect and integrate the answers. The queries may be transformed to a local schema either by the mediation system or by the receiving local system itself.

`              

Local systems may also import data from other systems, in order to complement collections, or to merge information from other systems. An information system may export information for migration and preservation.

 

Compatibility with the CRM pertains to one or more of the following data communication capabilities or use cases:

1.        data falling within the scope of the CRM can be exported from an information system into an encoded form without loss of meaning with respect to CRM concepts;

2.        data falling within the scope of the CRM can be transformed into another encoded form without loss of meaning with respect to CRM concepts;

3.        data falling within the scope of the CRM can be imported from an encoded form into an information system without loss of meaning with respect to CRM concepts;

4.        data falling within the scope of the CRM that is contained in an information system can be queried and retrieved exhaustively in terms of CRM concepts, subject to the expressive power of a particular query language.

 

Any declaration of CRM compatibility must specify one or more of the above use cases. System and data structure providers shall not declare their products as “CRM compatible” without specifying the appropriate use cases as detailed below.

 

In the context of this chapter, the expression “without loss of meaning with respect to the CRM concepts” means the following: The CRM concepts are used to classify items of discourse and their relationships. By virtue of this classification, data can be understood as propositions of a kind declared by the CRM about real world facts, such as “Object x. forms part of: Object y”. In case the encoding, i.e. the language used to describe a fact, is changed, only an expert conversant with both languages can assess if the two propositions do indeed describe the same fact. If this is the case, then there is no loss of meaning with respect to CRM concepts. Communities of practice requiring fewer concepts than the CRM declares may restrict CRM compatibility with respect to an explicitly declared subset of the CRM.

 

Users of this standard may communicate CRM compatible data, as detailed below, with data structures and systems that are either more detailed and specialized than the CRM or whose scope extends beyond  that of the CRM. In such cases, the standard guarantees only the preservation of meaning with respect to CRM concepts. However, additional information that can be regarded as extending CRM concepts may be communicated and preserved in CRM compatible systems through the appropriate use of controlled terminology. The specification of the latter techniques does not fall under the scope of this standard. Communities of practice requiring extensions to the CRM are encouraged to declare their extensions as CRM-compatible standards.

CRM-Compatible Form

The CRM is a formal ontology which can be expressed in terms of logic or a suitable knowledge representation language. Its concepts can be instantiated as sets of statements that provide a model of reality. We call any encoding of such CRM instances in a formal language that preserves the relations between the CRM classes, properties and inheritance rules  a “CRM-compatible form”. Hence data expressed in any CRM-compatible form can be automatically transformed into any other CRM-compatible form without loss of meaning. Classes and properties of the CRM are identified by their initial codes, such as “E55” or “P12”. The names of classes and properties of a CRM-compatible form may be translated into any local language, but the identifying codes must be preserved. A CRM-compatible form should not implement the quantifiers of CRM properties as cardinality constraints for the encoded instances. Quantifiers may be implemented in an informative way, or not at all. Statements that violate quantifiers should be treated as alternative knowledge.

 

Any encoding of CRM instances in a formal language that preserves the relations within a consistent subset of CRM classes, properties and inheritance rules is regarded a “reduced CRM-compatible form”, if:

    • all the conditions applicable to a CRM compatible form are respected;
    • the subset does not violate the rules of subsumption and inheritance;
    • any instance of the reduced CRM-compatible form is also a valid instance of a (full) CRM compatible form
    • the subset contains at least the following concepts:

E1

CRM Entity

E2

-

Temporal Entity

E4

-

-

Period

E5

-

-

-

Event

E7

-

-

-

-

Activity

E11

-

-

-

-

-

Modification

E12

-

-

-

-

-

-

Production

E13

-

-

-

-

-

Attribute Assignment

E65

-

-

-

-

-

Creation

E63

-

-

-

-

Beginning of Existence

E12

-

-

-

-

-

Production

E65

-

-

-

-

-

Creation

E64

-

-

-

-

End of Existence

E77

-

Persistent Item

E70

-

-

Thing

E72

-

-

-

Legal Object

E18

-

-

-

-

Physical Thing

E24

-

-

-

-

-

Physical Man-Made Thing

E90

-

-

-

-

Symbolic Object

E71

-

-

-

Man-Made Thing

E24

-

-

-

-

Physical Man-Made Thing

E28

-

-

-

-

Conceptual Object

E89

-

-

-

-

-

Propositional Object

E30

-

-

-

-

-

-

Right

E73

-

-

-

-

-

-

Information Object

E90

-

-

-

-

-

Symbolic Object

E41

-

-

-

-

-

-

Appellation

E73

-

-

-

-

-

-

Information Object

E55

-

-

-

-

-

Type

E39

-

-

Actor

E74

-

-

-

Group

E52

-

Time-Span

E53

-

Place

E54

-

Dimension

E59

Primitive Value

E61

-

Time Primitive

E62

-

String

 

Property id

Property Name

Entity – Domain

Entity - Range

P1

is identified by (identifies)

E1 CRM Entity

E41 Appellation

P2

has type (is type of)

E1 CRM Entity

E55 Type

P3

has note

E1 CRM Entity

E62 String

P4

has time-span (is time-span of)

E2 Temporal Entity

E52 Time-Span

P7

took place at (witnessed)

E4 Period

E53 Place

P10

falls within (contains)

E4 Period

E4 Period

P12

occurred in the presence of (was present at)

E5 Event

E77 Persistent Item

P11

   -   had participant (participated in)

E5 Event

E39 Actor

P14

   -   -   carried out by (performed)

E7 Activity

E39 Actor

P16

   -   used specific object (was used for)

E7 Activity

E70 Thing

P31

   -   has modified (was modified by)

E11 Modification

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

P108

   -  -    has produced (was produced by)

E12 Production

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

P92

   -   brought into existence (was brought into existence by)

E63 Beginning of Existence

E77 Persistent Item

P108

   -  -    has produced (was produced by)

E12 Production

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

P94

   -   -   has created (was created by)

E65 Creation

E28 Conceptual Object

P93

   -   took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)

E64 End of Existence

E77 Persistent Item

P15

was influenced by (influenced)

E7 Activity

E1 CRM Entity

P16

   -   used specific object (was used for)

E7 Activity

E70 Thing

P20

had specific purpose (was purpose of)

E7 Activity

E7 Activity

P43

has dimension (is dimension of)

E70 Thing

E54 Dimension

P46

is composed of (forms part of)

E18 Physical Thing

E18 Physical Thing

P59

has section (is located on or within)

E18 Physical Thing

E53 Place

P67

refers to ( is referred to by)

E89 Propositional Object

E1 CRM Entity

P75

possesses (is possessed by)

E39 Actor

E30 Right

P81

ongoing throughout

E52 Time-Span

E61 Time Primitive

P82

at some time within

E52 Time-Span

E61 Time Primitive

P89

falls within (contains)

E53 Place

E53 Place

P104

is subject to (applies to)

E72 Legal Object

E30 Right

P106

is composed of (forms part of)

E90 Symbolic Object

E90 Symbolic Object

P107

has current or former member (is current or former member of)

E74 Group

E39 Actor

P127

has broader term (has narrower term)

E55 Type

E55 Type

P128

carries (is carried by)

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

E73 Information Object

P130

shows features of (features are also found on)

E70 Thing

E70 Thing

P140

assigned attribute to (was attributed by)

E13 Attribute Assignment

E1 CRM Entity

P141

assigned (was assigned by)

E13 Attribute Assignement

E1 CRM Entity

P148

has component (is component of)

E89 Propositional Object

E89 Propositional Object

 

CRM Compatibility of Data Structure

 

A data structure is export-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to transform any data from this data structure into a CRM-compatible form without loss of meaning. Implicit concepts may be present in elements of the data structure that are not supported by the CRM. As long as these concepts can be encoded as instances of E55 Type (i.e. as terminology) and attached unambiguously to their respective data items with suitable properties, the data structure is still regarded as export compatible.

 

Note that not all CRM concepts may be represented by elements of an export-compatible data structure. All data from export-compatible data structures can be transported in a CRM-compatible form. In particular any CRM compatible form or reduced CRM-compatible form is export-compatible with the CRM.

 

A data structure is import-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to automatically transform any data from a CRM-compatible form into this data structure without loss of meaning, simply on the basis of knowledge about the data structure elements being used. This implies that a data record transformed into this data structure from a CRM-compatible form can be transformed back into the CRM-compatible form without loss of meaning. Note that the back-transformation into a CRM-compatible form may result in a data record that is semantically equivalent but not identical with the original.

 

Any CRM-compatible form is automatically import-compatible with the CRM. Note that an import-compatible data structure may be semantically richer than the CRM. It may contain elements that, through the use of a transformation algorithm, can be made to correspond to CRM concepts or specializations thereof or that contain elements with meanings that fall outside the scope of the CRM. However, it must not contain elements that overlap in meaning with CRM concepts and which cannot be subsumed via transformation by a CRM concept other than E1 CRM Entity and E77 Persistent Item. 

 

Import-compatible data structures may be used to transport data for applications that require concepts that lie beyond the scope of the CRM, as well as data from any export-compatible data structure. Note that, in general, applications may make use of data from a CRM import-compatible data structure that has been exported into a CRM compatible form by semantic reduction to CRM concepts, i.e. by generalizing all subsumed concepts to the most specific CRM concept applicable, and by discarding elements that fall outside the scope of the CRM.

 

A data structure is partially import-compatible with the CRM if the above holds for a reduced CRM-compatible form.

 

CRM Compatibility of Information Systems

 

An information system is export-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to export all user data from this information system into an import-compatible data structure. This capability is the recommended kind of CRM-compatibility for local information systems.

 

An information system is partially export compatible if it is possible to export all user data from this information system into a partially import-compatible data structure. This is not the recommended kind of CRM-compatibility, but it may not be feasible for legacy systems to acquire a higher level of CRM compatibility without unreasonable effort. This reduced level of CRM compatibility is nonetheless highly useful.

 

Note that there is no minimum requirement for the classes and properties that must be present in the exported user data. Therefore it is possible that the data may pertain to instances of just a single property, such as E21 Person. P131 is identified by: E82 Actor Appellation.

 

An information system is import-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to import data encoded in a CRM-compatible form and to access the data in a manner equivalent to and homogeneous with all generic data of this system that fall under the same concepts. This capability is considered as the normal kind of CRM compatibility for integrated access systems that physically copy source data in a data warehouse style (materialized access systems).

 

An information system is partially import-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to import data encoded in a reduced CRM-compatible form and to access the data in a manner equivalent to and homogeneous with all generic data of this system that fall under the same concepts. Depending on the functional requirements, it makes sense for integrated access systems to offer access services of reduced complexity by being only partially import-compatible with the CRM.

 

Note that it makes sense for integrated access systems to import data from extended data structures by semantic reduction to CRM defined concepts.

 

Note that local information system providers may choose to make their systems import-compatible with the CRM to be import-compatible with the CRM in order to exchange data, for example in the case of museum object loans or for system migration purposes. Communities of practice may choose to agree on import compatibility for extended data structures.

 

Some local information systems are likely to focus on specialized subject areas, such as inscriptions. For these specialized systems, the ability to import a specific data structure is recommended. This should be export-compatible with the CRM, and encompass the concepts that are required by the subject matter (“dedicated import compatibility”).

 

An information system is access-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to access the user data in the information system by querying with CRM classes and properties so that the meaning of the answers to the queries corresponds to the query terms used. It is not regarded as a reduction of compatibility if access is limited to data deemed to be exchanged.

 

An information system is partially access-compatible with the CRM if it is possible to access the user data in the information system by querying with a consistent subset of CRM classes and properties, corresponding to a reduced CRM-compatible form, so that the meaning of the answers to the queries corresponds to the query terms used.

 

An access-compatible system may be export-compatible with respect to the query answers. Note that it may make sense for an access-compatible content management system to return only content items in response to queries rather than being export compatible.

 

 

Figure XXX: Possible data flow between different kinds of CRM-compatible systems and data structures

 

Fig. XXX shows a symbolic representation of some of the data flow patterns defined above between different kinds of CRM-compatible systems and data structures. In this figure it is assumed that the Local System B exports data into a CRM export-compatible data structure, which implies that it can be exported into a CRM-compatible form or any other CRM import-compatible data structure. Therefore Local System B is export-compatible with the CRM. For Local System A, the figure symbolizes the case where the exported data contain elements that correspond to specializations of the CRM or fall out of its scope.

Compatibility claim declaration

 

A provider of a data structure or information system claiming compatibility with the CRM has to provide a declaration that describes the kind of compatibility and, depending on the kind, the following additional information: 

 

·         For  export-compatible data structures:

The subset of CRM concepts directly instantiated by any possible data in this data structure after transformation into a CRM-compatible form.

·         For export-compatible systems:

    1. A declaration of configurable user data elements, if any, that are not semantically restricted to  a CRM Concept (other than E1 CRM Entity or E77 Persistent Item).
    2. User data elements or units that are not exported.
    3. The subset of CRM concepts directly instantiated by any possible data exported from the system after transformation into a CRM-compatible form.

·         For partially or dedicated import-compatible systems:

The subset of CRM concepts under which data can be imported into the system.

·         For  access-compatible systems:

a.        The query language by which the system can be queried.

b.       The subset of CRM concepts directly instantiated by any possible query answers exported from the system after transformation into a CRM-compatible form.

c.        For partially access-compatible systems, the subset of CRM concepts by which the system can be queried.

 

The provider should be able to demonstrate the claim with suitable test data. A third party should be able to verify the claim with suitable test data.

 

 

About Types

The text about types was changed:

 

FROM:

 

Virtually all structured descriptions of museum objects begin with a unique object identifier and information about the “type” of the object, often in a set of fields with names like “Object Type,” “Object Name,” “Category,” “Classification,” etc. All these fields are used for terms that declare that the object is a member of a particular class or category of items, and are described by the CRM as instances of E55 Type. Since the instances of this class are themselves classes, E55 Type is in fact a metaclass.

 

The class E1 CRM Entity is the domain of the property P2 has type (is type of), which has the range E55 Type. Consequently, every class in the CRM, with the exception of E59 Primitive Value, inherits the property P2 has type (is type of). This provides a general mechanism for refining the classification of CRM instances to any level of detail, by linking to external vocabulary sources, thesauri, classification schema or ontologies that function as extensions to the CRM class and property hierarchies. The external vocabularies do not themselves fall within the scope of the CRM.

 

The class E55 Type also serves as the range of properties that relate to categorical knowledge commonly found in cultural documentation. For example, the property P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) enables the CRM to express statements such as “this casting was produced using a mould”, meaning that there has been an unknown or unmentioned instance of “mould” that was actually used. This enables the specific instance of the casting to be associated with the entire type of manufacturing devices known as moulds. Further, the objects of type “mould” would be related via P2 has type (is type of) to this term. This indirect relationship may actually help in detecting the unknown object in an integrated environment. On the other side, some casting may refer directly to a known mould via P16 used specific object (was used for).  So a statistical question to how many objects in a certain collection are made with moulds could be answered correctly (following both paths through P16 used specific object (was used for) - P2 has type  (is type of) and P125 used object of type (was type of object used in). This consistent treatment of categorical knowledge significantly enhances the CRM’s ability to integrate cultural knowledge.

 

Some properties in the CRM are associated with an additional property. These are numbered in the CRM documentation with a ".1" extension. These do not appear in the property hierarchy list but are included as part of the property declarations and referred to in the class declarations. For example, P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type is associated with E24 Physical Man-made Thing. P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity. The range of these properties of properties always falls within the type hierarchy E55 Type. Their purpose is to allow dynamic extensions to their parent property through the use of property subtypes declared as instances of E55 Type. This function is analogous to that of the P2 has type (is type of) property, which all CRM classes inherit from E1 CRM Entity. System implementations and schemas that do not support properties of properties may use dynamic subtyping of the parent properties instead.

 

Finally, types play a central role in the history of human understanding; they are intellectual products, and documentation about the history and justification by physical evidence of types (particularly in disciplines such as archaeology and natural history) falls squarely within the intended scope of the CRM. Therefore types are modelled as “conceptual objects,” in parallel to their structural role as metaclasses. This approach elegantly addresses the dual nature of types in a manner consistent with material culture and natural history documentation.

 

TO:

Virtually all structured descriptions of museum objects begin with a unique object identifier and information about the "type" of the object, often in a set of fields with names like "Classification", "Category", "Object Type", "Object Name", etc. All these fields are used for terms that declare that the object belongs to a particular category of items. In the CRM the class E55 Type comprises such terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes.  Instances of E55 Type represent concepts (universals) in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes.

 

E55 Type is the CRM’s interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties.

 

For this purpose the CRM provides two basic properties that describe classification with terminology, corresponding to what is the current practice in the majority of information systems. The class E1 CRM Entity is the domain of the property P2 has type (is type of), which has the range E55 Type. Consequently, every class in the CRM, with the exception of E59 Primitive Value, inherits the property P2 has type (is type of).  This provides a general mechanism for simulating a specialization of the classification of CRM instances to any level of detail, by linking to external vocabulary sources, thesauri, classification schema or ontologies.

 

Analogous to the function of the P2 has type (is type of) property, some properties in the CRM are associated with an additional property. These are numbered in the CRM documentation with a ‘.1’ extension. The range of these properties of properties always falls under E55 Type. Their purpose is to simulate a specialization of their parent property through the use of property subtypes declared as instances of E55 Type. They do not appear in the property hierarchy list but are included as part of the property declarations and referred to in the class declarations. For example, P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type is associated with E24 Physical Man-made Thing. P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity.

 

The class E55 Type also serves as the range of properties that relate to categorical knowledge commonly found in cultural documentation. For example, the property P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) enables the CRM to express statements such as “this casting was produced using a mould”, meaning that there has been an unknown or unmentioned object, a mould, that was actually used. This enables the specific instance of the casting to be associated with the entire type of manufacturing devices known as moulds. Further, the objects of type “mould” would be related via P2 has type (is type of) to this term. This indirect relationship may actually help in detecting the unknown object in an integrated environment. On the other side, some casting may refer directly to a known mould via P16 used specific object (was used for).  So a statistical question to how many objects in a certain collection are made with moulds could be answered correctly (following both paths through P16 used specific object (was used for) - P2 has type (is type of) and P125 used object of type (was type of object used in). This consistent treatment of categorical knowledge enhances the CRM’s ability to integrate cultural knowledge.

 

In addition to being an interface to external thesauri and classification systems E55 Type is an ordinary class in the CRM and a subclass of E28 Conceptual Object. E55 Type and its subclasses inherit all properties from this superclass.  Thus together with the CRM class E83 Type Creation the rigorous scholarly or scientific process that ensures a type is exhaustively described and appropriately named can be modelled inside the CRM. In some cases, particularly in archaeology and the life sciences, E83 Type Creation requires the identification of an exemplary specimen and the publication of the type definition in an appropriate scholarly forum. This is very central to research in the life sciences, where a type would be referred to as a “taxon,” the type description as a “protologue,” and the exemplary specimens as “original element” or “holotype”.

 

Finally, types, that is, instances of E55 Type and its subclasses, are used to characterize the instances of a CRM class and hence refine the meaning of the class.  A type ‘artist’ can be used to characterize persons through P2 has type (is type of).  On the other hand, in an art history application of the CRM it can be adequate to extend the CRM class E21 Person with a subclass E21.xx Artist. What is the difference of the type ‘artist’ and the class Artist? From an everyday conceptual point of view there is no difference. Both denote the concept ‘artist’ and identify the same set of persons. Thus in this setting a type could be seen as a class and the class of types may be seen as a metaclass.  Since current systems do not provide an adequate control of user defined metaclasses, the CRM prefers to model instances of E55 Type as if they were particulars, with the relationships described in the previous paragraphs.

 

Users may decide to implement a concept either as a subclass extending the CRM class system or as an instance of E55 Type. A new subclass should only be created in case the concept is sufficiently stable and associated with additional explicitly modeled properties specific to it. Otherwise, an instance of E55 Type provides more flexibility of use. Users that may want to describe a discourse not only using a concept extending the CRM but also describing the history of this concept itself, may chose to model the same concept both as subclass and as an instance of E55 Type with the same name. Similarly it should be regarded as good practice to foresee for each term hierarchy refining a CRM class a term equivalent of this class as top term. For instance, a term hierarchy for instances of E21 Person may begin with “Person”.

 

E55 Type

 

The scope note of E55 Type was changed:

 

FROM

 

This class comprises arbitrary concepts (universals) and provides a mechanism for organising them into a hierarchy.

 

This hierarchy is intended to duplicate the names of all the classes present in the model. This allows additional refinement, through subtyping, of those classes which do not require further analysis of their formal properties, but which nonetheless represent typological distinctions important to a given user group.

 

 It should be noted that the Model does not make the distinction between classes and types known from some knowledge representation systems and object-oriented programming languages. The class E55 Type can be regarded as a metaclass (a class whose instances are universals), used to denote a user-defined specialization of some class or property of the Model, without introducing any additional formal properties for this specialization.

 

It reflects the characteristic use of the term “object type” for naming data fields in museum documentation and particularly the notion of typology in archaeology. It has however nothing to do with the term “type” in Natural History (cf. E83 Type Creation), but it includes the notion of a “taxon”.

 

Ideally, instances of the class E55 Type should be organised into thesauri, with scope notes, illustrations, etc. to clarify their meaning. In general, it is expected that different domains and cultural groups will develop different thesauri in parallel. Consistent reasoning on the expansion of subterms used in a thesaurus is possible insofar as it conforms to both the classes and the hierarchies of the model.

 

E56 Language, E57 Material and E58 Measurement Unit have been defined explicitly as elements of the E55 Type hierarchy because they are used categorically in the model without reference to instances of them, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of them, e.g., the property instance “P45 consists of : gold” does not refer to a particular instance of gold.

 

TO:

This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes.  Instances of E55 Type represent concepts  in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes.

 

E55 Type is the CRM’s interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties.

 

E66 Formation

The scope note of E66 Formation was changed:

 

FROM:

This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation.

 

E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective.

 

TO:

This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation.

 

E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective.

The formation of an instance of E74 Group does not mean that the group is populated with members at the time of formation. In order to express the joining of members at the time of formation, the respective activity should be simultaneously an instance of both E66 Formation and E85 Joining.

 

P143 Joining

The scope note of P143 was changed:

 

FROM:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that becomes member of a E74 Group in an E85 Joining

TO:

This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that becomes member of a E74 Group in an E85 Joining.

 Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).

 

P144 joined with (gained member by)

 

The scope note of P144 was changed

 

FROM:

                         This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.

Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.

 

 

TO:

 

                         This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.

Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.

 

Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).

 

P5 consists of

The example of P5 was changed

 

FROM:

 

§         Ruination of the Tower of Babylon (E3) consists of wind-erosion phase (E3)

 

TO:

The Condition State of the ruined Parthenon (E3 Condition State) consists of (P5) a bombarded state (E3 Condition State) from the explosion of a Venetian shell in 1687

E78 Collection

An example is added:

 

FROM:

 

Examples:              

§         the John Clayton Herbarium

§         the Wallace Collection

 

TO:

Examples:              

§         the John Clayton Herbarium

§         the Wallace Collection

§         Michael Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Trondheim, Norway

 

E87 Curation Activity

An example is added:

 

FROM:

Examples:

 

TO:

 

Examples:        

·        The curation of  Michael. Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium 1876 – 1909 (when Foslie died), now at Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Norway

 

P147 curated (was curated by)

An example is added:

 

FROM:

Examples:      

    • The activities (E87) by the Benaki Museum curated the acquisition of dolls and games of urban and folk manufacture dating from the 17th to the 20th century, from England, France and Germany for the “Toys, Games and Childhood Collection (E78) of the Museum.
    • The activities (E87) of the Historical Museum of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, curated the development of the permanent Numismatic Collection (E78).

 

TO:

Examples:      

    • The activities (E87) by the Benaki Museum curated the acquisition of dolls and games of urban and folk manufacture dating from the 17th to the 20th century, from England, France and Germany for the “Toys, Games and Childhood Collection (E78) of the Museum.
    • The activities (E87) of the Historical Museum of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, curated the development of the permanent Numismatic Collection (E78).
    • The activities (E87) by Mikael Foslie curated  the Mikael. Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium

 

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)

An example is added:

 

FROM:

Examples:              

      • the Robert Opie Collection (E78) has current or former curator Robert Opie (E39)

TO:

Examples:              

      • the Robert Opie Collection (E78) has current or former curator Robert Opie (E39)
      • the Mikael. Foslie’s coralline red algae Herbarium (E78) has current or former curator Mikael Foslie

Amendments to version 5.0

Compatibility claim declaration

The last paragraph was changed. The phrase 

"The provider should be able to demonstrate the claim with suitable test data. A third party should be able to verify the claim with suitable test data."

is replaced by:
"The provider should be able to demonstrate the claim with suitable test data. The provider should be able to demonstrate its claim according to certain procedures included in any applicable certificate practice related statement.

The provider should either make evidence of these procedures publicly available on the Internet on a site nominated by the ISO community of use, so that any third party is able to verify the claim with suitable test data, or acquire a certificate by a certification authority (CA).

A trusted third party recognised and authorised by a competent regulatory authority to act as a CA in this practice area, should be able to verify the credentials of the provider applying for such certificate and thus, of its claim with suitable test data, before issuing the certificate so that the users can trust the information in the CA certificates.

The CA will grant the provider of the certified system the right to use the “CRM compatible” logo."

 

E78 Collection

The first sentence in the scope note has been changed. The phrase “This class comprises aggregations of physical items that are assembled and maintained ...”
is replaced by 
"This class comprises aggregations of instances of E18 Physical Thing that are assembled and maintained ..”

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)

The property ‘P107.1 kind of member: E55 Type’ has been added and the scope note and the examples have been changed to:

 

Scope note:      This property relates an E39 Actor to the E74 Group of which he or she is a member.

 

Groups, Legal Bodies and Persons, may all be members of Groups. A Group necessarily consists of more than one member.

 

This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor

The property P107.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.

 

Examples:              

      • Moholy Nagy (E21) is current or former member of Bauhaus (E74)
      • National Museum of Science and Industry (E40) has current or former member The National Railway Museum (E40)
      • The married couple Queen Elisabeth and Prince Phillip (E74) has current or former member Prince Phillip (E21) with P107.1 kind of member husband (E55 Type)

 

Properties:             P107.1 kind of member: E55 Type

P144 joined with (gained member by)

The property P144.1 kind of member: E55 Type has been added and the scope note and the examples have been changed to:

 

 

Scope note:       This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.

 

Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.

 

Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).

The property P144.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.

 

Examples:              

      • The election of Sir Isaac Newton as Member of Parliament to the Convention Parliament of 1689 joined with the Convention Parliament
      • The inauguration of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev as Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1985 joined with the office of Leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) with P144.1 kind  of member President
      • The implementation of the membership treaty January 1. 1973 between EU and Denmark joined with EU (E40)

 

Properties:             P144.1 kind of member: E55 Type

 

Proofreading:

Page vii: Figure XXX became fig. 1

Page xiv: Naming Conventions, second paragraph became “…… P126 employed (was employed in) ” instead of P126 employed (was employed by”)

Page xviii: Examples: the first figure fig.1 reasoning about spatial information was updated and became fig2

Page xix: in the first paragraph the domain of P59 was corrected, from E19 Physical Object to E18 Physical Thing. The fig.2 in the same page became fig.3

Page xxiv: P33 was added to the table of CIDOC CRM Property Hierarchy

Page 14: The name of P68 was corrected. It was “P68 usually employs (is usually employed)” and it was changed  to “P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by)”

Page 14: A correction was made to the  superclasses of E30 Right. E30 is not a direct subclass of E28 Conceptual Object.

Page 29: A correction was made to the superclasses of E73 Information Object. E73 Information Object is not  a direct subclass of E28 Conceptual Object

Page 40: A correction was made to the subclasses of P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)’. It was added the subclass of  ‘E7 Activity.P33 used specific technique(was used by):E29 Design or Procedure’

Page 41: A correction was made to the subclasses of  ‘P15 was influenced by (influenced)’. It was added the subclass of  ‘E7 Activity.P33 used specific technique(was used by):E29 Design or Procedure’

Page 64: It was missing the  domain of ‘P52 has current owner (is current owner of)’ of the subclass of P105 right held by (has right on)’. The ‘E18 Physical Thing’ was added.