Definition of the
CIDOC
Conceptual Reference Model

Version 5.0.1

March 2009

Table of Contents

  1. Initial Page
  2. Introduction
  3. Class & Property Hierarchies
    1. CIDOC CRM Class Hierarchy
    2. CIDOC CRM Property Hierarchy
    3. CIDOC CRM Class Declarations
    4. CIDOC CRM Property Declarations
    5. The Entity List
    6. The Property List
    7. References
  4. APPENDIX

Class & Property Hierarchies

Although they do not provide comprehensive definitions, compact monohierarchical presentations of the class and property IsA hierarchies have been found to significantly aid comprehension and navigation of the CRM, and are therefore provided below.

The class hierarchy presented below has the following format:

The property hierarchy presented below has the following format:

CIDOC CRM Class Hierarchy

E1 CRM Entity
E2 - Temporal Entity
E3 - - Condition State
E4 - - Period
E5 - - - Event
E7 - - - - Activity
E8 - - - - - Acquisition Event
E9 - - - - - Move
E10 - - - - - Transfer of Custody
E11 - - - - - Modification
E12 - - - - - - Production
E79 - - - - - - Part Addition
E80 - - - - - - Part Removal
E13 - - - - - Attribute Assignment
E14 - - - - - - Condition Assessment
E15 - - - - - - Identifier Assignment
E16 - - - - - - Measurement
E17 - - - - - - Type Assignment
E65 - - - - - Creation
E83 - - - - - - Type Creation
E66 - - - - - Formation
E85 - - - - - Joining
E86 - - - - - Leaving
E87 - - - - - Curation Activity
E63 - - - - Beginning of Existence
E67 - - - - - Birth
E81 - - - - - Transformation
E12 - - - - - Production
E65 - - - - - Creation
E83 - - - - - - Type Creation
E66 - - - - - Formation
E64 - - - - End of Existence
E6 - - - - - Destruction
E68 - - - - - Dissolution
E69 - - - - - Death
E81 - - - - - Transformation
E77 - Persistent Item
E70 - - Thing
E72 - - - Legal Object
E18 - - - - Physical Thing
E19 - - - - - Physical Object
E20 - - - - - - Biological Object
E21 - - - - - - - Person
E22 - - - - - - Man-Made Object
E84 - - - - - - - Information Carrier
E24 - - - - - Physical Man-Made Thing
E22 - - - - - - Man-Made Object
E84 - - - - - - - Information Carrier
E25 - - - - - - Man-Made Feature
E78 - - - - - - Collection
E26 - - - - - Physical Feature
E27 - - - - - - Site
E25 - - - - - - Man-Made Feature
E90 - - - - Symbolic Object
E73 - - - - - Information Object
E29 - - - - - - Design or Procedure
E31 - - - - - - Document
E32 - - - - - - - Authority Document
E33 - - - - - - Linguistic Object
E34 - - - - - - - Inscription
E35 - - - - - - - Title
E36 - - - - - - Visual Item
E37 - - - - - - - Mark
E34 - - - - - - - - Inscription
E38 - - - - - - - Image
E41 - - - - - Appellation
E42 - - - - - - Identifier
E44 - - - - - - Place Appellation
E45 - - - - - - - Address
E46 - - - - - - - Section Definition
E47 - - - - - - - Spatial Coordinates
E48 - - - - - - - Place Name
E49 - - - - - - Time Appellation
E50 - - - - - - - Date
E75 - - - - - - Conceptual Object Appellation
E82 - - - - - - Actor Appellation
E51 - - - - - - Contact Point
E45 - - - - - - - Address
E35 - - - - - Title
E71 - - - Man-Made Thing
E24 - - - - Physical Man-Made Thing
E22 - - - - - Man-Made Object
E84 - - - - - - Information Carrier
E25 - - - - - Man-Made Feature
E78 - - - - - Collection
E28 - - - - Conceptual Object
E90 - - - - - Symbolic Object
E73 - - - - - - Information Object
E29 - - - - - - - Design or Procedure
E31 - - - - - - - Document
E32 - - - - - - - - Authority Document
E33 - - - - - - Linguistic Object
E34 - - - - - - - - Inscription
E35 - - - - - - - Title
E36 - - - - - - - - Visual Item
E37 - - - - - - - - Mark
E34 - - - - - - - - Inscription
E38 - - - - - - - - Image
E41 - - - - - - Appellation
E42 - - - - - - - Identifier
E44 - - - - - - - Place Appellation
E45 - - - - - - - - Address
E46 - - - - - - - - Section Definition
E47 - - - - - - - - Spatial Coordinates
E48 - - - - - - - - Place Name
E49 - - - - - - - Time Appellation
E50 - - - - - - - Date
E75 - - - - - - - Conceptual Object Appellation
E82 - - - - - - - Actor Appellation
E51 - - - - - - - Contact Point
E45 - - - - - - - - Address
E35 - - - - - Title
E89 - - - - - Propositional Object
E73 - - - - - - Information Object
E29 - - - - - - - Design or Procedure
E31 - - - - - - - Document
E32 - - - - - - - - Authority Document
E33 - - - - - - - Linguistic Object
E34 - - - - - - - - - Inscription
E35 - - - - - - - - Title
E36 - - - - - - - Visual Item
E37 - - - - - - - - Mark
E34 - - - - - - - - Inscription
E38 - - - - - - - - Image
E30 - - - - - - Right
E55 - - - - - Type
E56 - - - - - - Language
E57 - - - - - - Material
E58 - - - - - - Measurement Unit
E39 - - Actor
E74 - - - Group
E40 - - - - Legal Body
E21 - - - Person
E52 - Time-Span
E53 - Place
E54 - Dimension
E59 Primitive Value
E60 - Number
E61 - Time Primitive
E62 - String

CIDOC CRM Property Hierarchy

Id Property Name Entity - Domain Entity - Range
P1 is identified by (identifies) E1 CRM Entity E41 Appellation
P48 - has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E1 CRM Entity E42 Identifier
P78 - is identified by (identifies) E52 Time-Span E49 Time Appellation
P87 - is identified by (identifies) E53 Place E44 Place Appellation
P102 - has title (is title of) E71 Man-Made Thing E35 Title
P131 - is identified by (identifies) E39 Actor E82 Actor Appellation
P2 has type (is type of) E1 CRM Entity E55 Type
P137 - exemplifies (is exemplified by) E1 CRM Entity E55 Type
P3 has note E1 CRM Entity E62 String
P79 - beginning is qualified by E52 Time-Span E62 String
P80 - end is qualified by E52 Time-Span E62 String
P4 has time-span (is time-span of) E2 Temporal Entity E52 Time-Span
P5 consists of (forms part of) E3 Condition State E3 Condition State
P7 took place at (witnessed) E4 Period E53 Place
P26 - moved to (was destination of) E9 Move E53 Place
P27 - moved from (was origin of) E9 Move E53 Place
P8 took place on or within (witnessed) E4 Period E19 Physical Object
P9 consists of (forms part of) E4 Period E4 Period
P10 falls within (contains) E4 Period E4 Period
P148 has component (is component of) E89 Propositional Object E89 Propositional Object
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) E5 Event E77 Persistent Item
P11 - had participant (participated in) E5 Event E39 Actor
P14 - - carried out by (performed) E7 Activity E39 Actor
P22 - - - transferred title to (acquired title through) E8 Acquisition E39 Actor
P23 - - - transferred title from (surrendered title through) E8 Acquisition E39 Actor
P28 - - - custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) E10 Transfer of Custody E39 Actor
P29 - - - custody received by (received custody through) E10 Transfer of Custody E39 Actor
P96 - - by mother (gave birth) E67 Birth E21 Person
P99 - - dissolved (was dissolved by) E68 Dissolution E74 Group
P143 - - joined (was joined by) E85 Joining E39 Actor
P144 - - joined with (gained member by) E85 Joining E74 Group
P145 - - separated (left by) E86 Leaving E39 Actor
P146 - - separated from (lost member by) E86 Leaving E74 Group
P16 - used specific object (was used for) E7 Activity E70 Thing
P33 - - used specific technique (was used by) E7 Activity E29 Design or Procedure
P142 - - used constituent (was used in) E15 Identifier Assignement E41 Appellation
P25 - moved (moved by) E9 Move E19 Physical Object
P31 - has modified (was modified by) E11 Modification E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P108 - - has produced (was produced by) E12 Production E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P110 - - augmented (was augmented by) E79 Part Addition E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P112 - - diminished (was diminished by) E80 Part Removal E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P33 - used specific technique (was used by) E7 Activity E29 Design or Procedure
P92 - brought into existence (was brought into existence by) E63 Beginning of Existence E77 Persistent Item
P94 - - has created (was created by) E65 Creation E28 Conceptual Object
P135 - - - created type (was created by) E83 Type Creation E55 Type
P95 - - has formed (was formed by) E66 Formation E74 Group
P98 - - brought into life (was born) E67 Birth E21 Person
P108 - - has produced (was produced by) E12 Production E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P123 - - resulted in (resulted from) E81 Transformation E77 Persistent Item
P93 - took out of existence (was taken out of existence by) E64 End of Existence E77 Persistent Item
P13 - - destroyed (was destroyed by) E6 Destruction E18 Physical Thing
P99 - - dissolved (was dissolved by) E68 Dissolution E74 Group
P100 - - was death of (died in) E69 Death E21 Person
P124 - - transformed (was transformed by) E81 Transformation E77 Persistent Item
P33 - - used specific technique (was used by) E7 Activity E29 Design or Procedure
P142 - - used constituent (was used in) E15 Identifier Assignement E41 Appellation
P15 was influenced by (influenced) E7 Activity E1 CRM Entity
P16 - used specific object (was used for) E7 Activity E70 Thing
P33 - - used specific technique (was used by) E11 Modification E29 Design or Procedure
P142 - - used constituent (was used in) E15 Identifier Assignement E41 Appellation
P33 - used specific technique (was used by) E11 Modification E29 Design or Procedure
P17 - was motivated by (motivated) E7 Activity E1 CRM Entity
P134 - continued (was continued by) E7 Activity E7 Activity
P136 - was based on (supported type creation) E83 Type Creation E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for) E7 Activity E71 Man-Made Thing
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) E7 Activity E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) E7 Activity E55 Type
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through) E8 Acquisition E18 Physical Thing
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through) E10 Transfer of Custody E18 Physical Thing
P43 has dimension (is dimension of) E70 Thing E54 Dimension
P44 has condition (condition of) E18 Physical Thing E3 Condition State
P45 consists of (is incorporated in) E18 Physical Thing E57 Material
P46 is composed of (forms part of) E18 Physical Thing E18 Physical Thing
P56 - bears feature (is found on) E19 Physical Object E26 Physical Feature
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) E18 Physical Thing E39 Actor
P50 - has current keeper (is current keeper of) E18 Physical Thing E39 Actor
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) E18 Physical Thing E39 Actor
P52 - has current owner (is current owner of) E18 Physical Thing E39 Actor
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) E18 Physical Thing E53 Place
P55 - has current location (currently holds) E19 Physical Object E53 Place
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) E19 Physical Object E53 Place
P57 has number of parts E19 Physical Object E60 Number
P58 has section definition (defines section) E18 Physical Thing E46 Section Definition
P59 has section (is located on or within) E18 Physical Thing E53 Place
P62 depicts (is depicted by) E24 Physical Man-Made Thing E1 CRM Entity
P67 refers to ( is referred to by) E89 Propositional Object E1 CRM Entity
P70 - documents (is documented in) E31 Document E1 CRM Entity
P71 - lists (is listed in) E32 Authority Document E55 Type
P129 - is about (is subject of) E89 Propositional Object E1 CRM Entity
P138 - represents (has representation) E36 Visual Item E1 CRM Entity
P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by) E29 Design or Procedure E57 Material
P69 is associated with E29 Design or Procedure E29 Design or Procedure
P72 has language (is language of) E33 Linguistic Object E56 Language
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of) E39 Actor E53 Place
P75 possesses (is possessed by) E39 Actor E30 Right
P76 has contact point (provides access to) E39 Actor E51 Contact Point
P81 ongoing throughout E52 Time-Span E61 Time Primitive
P82 at some time within E52 Time-Span E61 Time Primitive
P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of) E52 Time-Span E54 Dimension
P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of) E52 Time-Span E54 Dimension
P86 falls within (contains) E52 Time-Span E52 Time-Span
P88 consists of (forms part of) E53 Place E53 Place
P89 falls within (contains) E53 Place E53 Place
P90 has value E54 Dimension E60 Number
P91 has unit (is unit of) E54 Dimension E58 Measurement Unit
P97 from father (was father for) E67 Birth E21 Person
P101 had as general use (was use of) E70 Thing E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of) E71 Man-Made Thing E55 Type
P104 is subject to (applies to) E72 Legal Object E30 Right
P105 right held by (has right on) E72 Legal Object E39 Actor
P52 - has current owner (is current owner of) E18 Physical Thing E39 Actor
P106 is composed of (forms part of) E90 Symbolic Object E90 Symbolic Object
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) E74 Group E39 Actor
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) E78 Collection E39 Actor
P111 added (was added by) E79 Part Addition E18 Physical Thing
P113 removed (was removed by) E80 Part Removal E18 Physical Thing
P114 is equal in time to E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by) E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by) E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes) E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P120 occurs before (occurs after) E2 Temporal Entity E2 Temporal Entity
P121 overlaps with E53 Place E53 Place
P122 borders with E53 Place E53 Place
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) E7 Activity E55 Type
P32 - used general technique (was technique of) E7 Activity E55 Type
P126 employed (was employed in) E11 Modification E57 Material
P127 has broader term (has narrower term) E55 Type E55 Type
P128 carries (is carried by) E24 Physical Man-Made Thing E73 Information Object
P65 - shows visual item (is shown by) E24 Physical Man-Made Thing E36 Visual Item
P130 shows features of (features are also found on) E70 Thing E70 Thing
P73 - has translation (is translation of) E33 Linguistic Object E33 Linguistic Object
P132 overlaps with E4 Period E4 Period
P133 is separated from E4 Period E4 Period
P139 has alternative form E41 Appellation E41 Appellation
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) E13 Attribute Assignment E1 CRM Entity
P34 - concerned (was assessed by) E14 Condition Assessment E18 Physical Thing
P39 - measured (was measured by) E16 Measurement E1 CRM Entity
P41 - classified (was classified by) E17 Type Assignement E1 CRM Entity
P141 assigned (was assigned by) E13 Attribute Assignement E1 CRM Entity
P35 - has identified (identified by) E14 Condition Assessment E3 Condition State
P37 - assigned (was assigned by) E15 Identifier Assignement E42 Identifier
P38 - deassigned (was deassigned by) E15 Identifier Assignement E42 Identifier
P40 - observed dimension (was observed in) E16 Measurement E54 Dimension
P42 - assigned (was assigned by) E17 Type Assignment E55 Type
P147 curated (was curated by) E87 Curation Activity E78 Collection
P148 has component (is component of) E89 Propositional Object E89 Propositional Object

CIDOC CRM Class Declarations

The classes of the CRM are comprehensively declared in this section using the following format:

CIDOC CRM Property Declarations

The properties of the CRM are comprehensively declared in this section using the following format:

Property names are presented as headings in bold face, preceded by unique property identifiers;

The line "Examples: " provides illustrative examples showing how the property should be used.

The Entity List

E1 CRM Entity

Superclass of: E2 Temporal Entity, E52 Time-Span, E53 Place, E54 Dimension, E77 Persistent Item,
Scope Note: This class comprises all things in the universe of discourse of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.
It is an abstract concept providing for three general properties:
1. Identification by name or appellation, and in particular by a preferred identifier
2. Classification by type, allowing further refinement of the specific subclass an instance belongs to
3. Attachment of free text for the expression of anything not captured by formal properties
With the exception of E59 Primitive Value, all other classes within the CRM are directly or indirectly specialisations of E1 CRM Entity.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E2 Temporal Entity

Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity,
Superclass of: E3 Condition State, E4 Period,
Scope Note: This class comprises all phenomena, such as the instances of E4 Periods, E5 Events and states, which happen over a limited extent in time.
In some contexts, these are also called perdurants. This class is disjoint from E77 Persistent Item. This is an abstract class and has no direct instances. E2 Temporal Entity is specialized into E4 Period, which applies to a particular geographic area (defined with a greater or lesser degree of precision), and E3 Condition State, which applies to instances of E18 Physical Thing.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is only referenced by itself.
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E3 Condition State

Subclass of: E2 Temporal Entity,
Scope Note: This class comprises the states of objects characterised by a certain condition over a time-span.
An instance of this class describes the prevailing physical condition of any material object or feature during a specific E52 Time Span. In general, the time-span for which a certain condition can be asserted may be shorter than the real time-span, for which this condition held.
The nature of that condition can be described using P2 has type. For example, the E3 Condition State "condition of the SS Great Britain between 22 September 1846 and 27 August 1847" can be characterized as E55 Type "wrecked".
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P5 consists of (forms part of): E3 Condition State
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E14 Condition Assessment: P35 has identified (was identified by)
E18 Physical Thing: P44 has condition (condition of)   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
E3 Condition State: P5 consists of (forms part of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E4 Period

Subclass of: E2 Temporal Entity,
Superclass of: E5 Event,
Scope Note: This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations bounded in time and space.
It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatio-temporal bounds. These bounds are a mere approximation of the actual process of growth, spread and retreat. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area as a sedentary culture.
Typically this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the "Neolithic Period", the "Ming Dynasty" or the "McCarthy Era". There are however no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor.
There are two different conceptualisations of 'artistic style', defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, "Impressionism" can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type.
Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is only referenced by itself.
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E5 Event

Subclass of: E4 Period,
Superclass of: E7 Activity, E63 Beginning of Existence, E64 End of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.
The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an 'instantaneous' change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E6 Destruction

Subclass of: E64 End of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises events that destroy one or more instances of E18 Physical Thing such that they lose their identity as the subjects of documentation.
Some destruction events are intentional, while others are independent of human activity. Intentional destruction may be documented by classifying the event as both an E6 Destruction and E7 Activity.
The decision to document an object as destroyed, transformed or modified is context sensitive:
1. If the matter remaining from the destruction is not documented, the event is modelled solely as E6 Destruction.
2. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the original. In this case, the new items have separate identities. Matter is preserved, but identity is not.
3. When the initial identity of the changed instance of E18 Physical Thing is preserved, the event should be documented as E11 Modification.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P13 destroyed (was destroyed by): E18 Physical Thing
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E7 Activity

Subclass of: E5 Event,
Superclass of: E8 Acquisition, E9 Move, E10 Transfer of Custody, E11 Modification, E13 Attribute Assignment, E65 Creation, E66 Formation, E85 Joining, E86 Leaving, E87 Curation Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises actions intentionally carried out by instances of E39 Actor that result in changes of state in the cultural, social, or physical systems documented.
This notion includes complex, composite and long-lasting actions such as the building of a settlement or a war, as well as simple, short-lived actions such as the opening of a door.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is only referenced by itself.
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E8 Acquisition

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises transfers of legal ownership from one or more instances of E39 Actor to one or more other instances of E39 Actor.
The class also applies to the establishment or loss of ownership of instances of E18 Physical Thing. It does not, however, imply changes of any other kinds of right. The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E8 Acquisition there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances, it may describe:
1. the beginning of ownership
2. the end of ownership
3. the transfer of ownership
4. the acquisition from an unknown source
5. the loss of title due to destruction of the item
It may also describe events where a collector appropriates legal title, for example by annexation or field collection. The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership (E8 Acquisition) and physical custody (E10 Transfer of Custody) separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P22 transferred title to (acquired title through): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through): E18 Physical Thing
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E9 Move

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises changes of the physical location of the instances of E19 Physical Object.
Note, that the class E9 Move inherits the property P7 took place at (witnessed) E53 Place. This property should be used to describe the trajectory or a larger area within which a move takes place, whereas the properties P26 moved to (was destination of), P27 moved from (was origin of) describe the start and end points only. Moves may also be documented to consist of other moves (via P9 consists of (forms part of)), in order to describe intermediate stages on a trajectory. In that case, start and end points of the partial moves should match appropriately between each other and with the overall event.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P25 moved (moved by): E19 Physical Object
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P26 moved to (was destination of): E53 Place
P27 moved from (was origin of): E53 Place
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E10 Transfer of Custody

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises transfers of physical custody of objects between instances of E39 Actor.
The recording of the donor and/or recipient is optional. It is possible that in an instance of E10 Transfer of Custody there is either no donor or no recipient. Depending on the circumstances it may describe:
1. the beginning of custody
2. the end of custody
3. the transfer of custody
4. the receipt of custody from an unknown source
5. the declared loss of an object
The distinction between the legal responsibility for custody and the actual physical possession of the object should be expressed using the property P2 has type (is type of). A specific case of transfer of custody is theft.
The interpretation of the museum notion of "accession" differs between institutions. The CRM therefore models legal ownership and physical custody separately. Institutions will then model their specific notions of accession and deaccession as combinations of these.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P29 custody received by (received custody through): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through): E18 Physical Thing
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E11 Modification

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Superclass of: E12 Production, E79 Part Addition, E80 Part Removal,
Scope Note: This class comprises all instances of E7 Activity that create, alter or change E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
This class includes the production of an item from raw materials, and other so far undocumented objects, and the preventive treatment or restoration of an object for conservation.
Since the distinction between modification and production is not always clear, modification is regarded as the more generally applicable concept. This implies that some items may be consumed or destroyed in a Modification, and that others may be produced as a result of it. An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities.
If the instance of the E29 Design or Procedure utilised for the modification prescribes the use of specific materials, they should be documented using properties of the design or procedure, rather than via P126 employed (was employed in) E57 Material.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E12 Production

Subclass of: E11 Modification, E63 Beginning of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises activities that are designed to, and succeed in, creating one or more new items.
It specializes the notion of modification into production. The decision as to whether or not an object is regarded as new is context sensitive. Normally, items are considered "new" if there is no obvious overall similarity between them and the consumed items and material used in their production. In other cases, an item is considered "new" because it becomes relevant to documentation by a modification. For example, the scribbling of a name on a potsherd may make it a voting token. The original potsherd may not be worth documenting, in contrast to the inscribed one.
This entity can be collective: the printing of a thousand books, for example, would normally be considered a single event.
An event should also be documented using E81 Transformation if it results in the destruction of one or more objects and the simultaneous production of others using parts or material from the originals. In this case, the new items have separate identities and matter is preserved, but identity is not.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P108 has produced (was produced by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E13 Attribute Assignment

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Superclass of: E14 Condition Assessment, E15 Identifier Assignment, E16 Measurement, E17 Type Assignment,
Scope Note: This class comprises the actions of making assertions about properties of an object or any relation between two items or concepts.
This class allows the documentation of how the respective assignment came about, and whose opinion it was. All the attributes or properties assigned in such an action can also be seen as directly attached to the respective item or concept, possibly as a collection of contradictory values. All cases of properties in this model that are also described indirectly through an action are characterised as "short cuts" of this action. This redundant modelling of two alternative views is preferred because many implementations may have good reasons to model either the action or the short cut, and the relation between both alternatives can be captured by simple rules.
In particular, the class describes the actions of people making propositions and statements during certain museum procedures, e.g. the person and date when a condition statement was made, an identifier was assigned, the museum object was measured, etc. Which kinds of such assignments and statements need to be documented explicitly in structures of a schema rather than free text, depends on if this information should be accessible by structured queries.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E14 Condition Assessment

Subclass of: E13 Attribute Assignment,
Scope Note: This class describes the act of assessing the state of preservation of an object during a particular period.
The condition assessment may be carried out by inspection, measurement or through historical research. This class is used to document circumstances of the respective assessment that may be relevant to interpret its quality at a later stage, or to continue research on related documents.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P34 concerned (was assessed by): E18 Physical Thing
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P35 has identified (was identified by): E3 Condition State
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
P44 has condition (condition of): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E15 Identifier Assignment

Subclass of: E13 Attribute Assignment,
Scope Note: This class comprises activities that result in the allocation of an identifier to an instance of E1 CRM Entity. An E15 Identifier Assignment may include the creation of the identifier from multiple constituents, which themselves may be instances of E41 Appellation. The syntax and kinds of constituents to be used may be declared in a rule constituting an instance of E29 Design or Procedure.
Examples of such identifiers include Find Numbers, Inventory Numbers, uniform titles in the sense of librarianship and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Documenting the act of identifier assignment and deassignment is especially useful when objects change custody or the identification system of an organization is changed. In order to keep track of the identity of things in such cases, it is important to document by whom, when and for what purpose an identifier is assigned to an item.
The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be expressed by using the property E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as "preferred identifier assignment", to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the P2 has type property.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P37 assigned (was assigned by): E42 Identifier
P38 deassigned (was deassigned by): E42 Identifier
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E16 Measurement

Subclass of: E13 Attribute Assignment,
Scope Note: This class comprises actions measuring physical properties and other values that can be determined by a systematic procedure.
Examples include measuring the monetary value of a collection of coins or the running time of a specific video cassette.
The E16 Measurement may use simple counting or tools, such as yardsticks or radiation detection devices. The interest is in the method and care applied, so that the reliability of the result may be judged at a later stage, or research continued on the associated documents. The date of the event is important for dimensions, which may change value over time, such as the length of an object subject to shrinkage. Details of methods and devices are best handled as free text, whereas basic techniques such as "carbon 14 dating" should be encoded using P2 has type (is type of: ) E55 Type.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P39 measured (was measured by): E1 CRM Entity
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P40 observed dimension (was observed in): E54 Dimension
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
P43 has dimension (is dimension of): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E17 Type Assignment

Subclass of: E13 Attribute Assignment,
Scope Note: This class comprises the actions of classifying items of whatever kind. Such items include objects, specimens, people, actions and concepts.
This class allows for the documentation of the context of classification acts in cases where the value of the classification depends on the personal opinion of the classifier, and the date that the classification was made. This class also encompasses the notion of "determination, " i.e. the systematic and molecular identification of a specimen in biology.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P41 classified (was classified by): E1 CRM Entity
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P42 assigned (was assigned by): E55 Type
P141 assigned (was assigned by): E1 CRM Entity
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E18 Physical Thing

Subclass of: E72 Legal Object,
Superclass of: E19 Physical Object, E24 Physical Man-Made Thing, E26 Physical Feature,
Scope Note: This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural.
Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter.
The CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E19 Physical Object

Subclass of: E18 Physical Thing,
Superclass of: E20 Biological Object, E22 Man-Made Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises items of a material nature that are units for documentation and have physical boundaries that separate them completely in an objective way from other objects.
The class also includes all aggregates of objects made for functional purposes of whatever kind, independent of physical coherence, such as a set of chessmen. Typically, instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy).
In some contexts, such objects, except for aggregates, are also called "bona fide objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), i.e. naturally defined objects.
The decision as to what is documented as a complete item, rather than by its parts or components, may be a purely administrative decision or may be a result of the order in which the item was acquired.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E4 Period: P8 took place on or within (witnessed)   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
E9 Move: P25 moved (moved by)
The entity inherits references:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E20 Biological Object

Subclass of: E19 Physical Object,
Superclass of: E21 Person,
Scope Note: This class comprises individual items of a material nature, which live, have lived or are natural products of or from living organisms.
Artificial objects that incorporate biological elements, such as Victorian butterfly frames, can be documented as both instances of E20 Biological Object and E22 Man-Made Object.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E4 Period: P8 took place on or within (witnessed)   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E9 Move: P25 moved (moved by)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E21 Person

Subclass of: E20 Biological Object, E39 Actor,
Scope Note: This class comprises real persons who live or are assumed to have lived.
Legendary figures that may have existed, such as Ulysses and King Arthur, fall into this class if the documentation refers to them as historical figures. In cases where doubt exists as to whether several persons are in fact identical, multiple instances can be created and linked to indicate their relationship. The CRM does not propose a specific form to support reasoning about possible identity.
Examples Properties
P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P76 has contact point (provides access to): E51 Contact Point
P75 possesses (is possessed by): E30 Right
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of): E53 Place
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E67 Birth: P96 by mother (gave birth)
E67 Birth: P98 brought into life (was born)
E69 Death: P100 was death of (died in)
E67 Birth: P97 from father (was father for)
The entity inherits references:
E4 Period: P8 took place on or within (witnessed)   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
E5 Event: P11 had participant (participated in)
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P14 carried out by (performed)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E8 Acquisition: P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E8 Acquisition: P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E9 Move: P25 moved (moved by)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P29 custody received by (received custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E18 Physical Thing: P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
E18 Physical Thing: P52 has current owner (is current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E72 Legal Object: P105 right held by (has right on)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E85 Joining: P143 joined (was joined by)
E86 Leaving: P145 separated (left by)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E74 Group: P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
E78 Collection: P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E22 Man-Made Object

Subclass of: E19 Physical Object, E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Superclass of: E84 Information Carrier,
Scope Note: This class comprises physical objects purposely created by human activity.
No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, an inscribed piece of rock or a preserved butterfly are both regarded as instances of E22 Man-Made Object.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E4 Period: P8 took place on or within (witnessed)   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E9 Move: P25 moved (moved by)
E11 Modification: P31 has modified (was modified by)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E12 Production: P108 has produced (was produced by)
E79 Part Addition: P110 augmented (was augmented by)
E80 Part Removal: P112 diminished (was diminished by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing

Subclass of: E18 Physical Thing, E71 Man-Made Thing,
Superclass of: E22 Man-Made Object, E25 Man-Made Feature, E78 Collection,
Scope Note: This class comprises all persistent physical items that are purposely created by human activity.
This class comprises man-made objects, such as a swords, and man-made features, such as rock art. No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding an object as man-made. For example, a "cup and ring" carving on bedrock is regarded as instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E11 Modification: P31 has modified (was modified by)
E12 Production: P108 has produced (was produced by)
E79 Part Addition: P110 augmented (was augmented by)
E80 Part Removal: P112 diminished (was diminished by)
The entity inherits references:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E25 Man-Made Feature

Subclass of: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing, E26 Physical Feature,
Scope Note: This class comprises physical features that are purposely created by human activity, such as scratches, artificial caves, artificial water channels, etc.
No assumptions are made as to the extent of modification required to justify regarding a feature as man-made. For example, rock art or even "cup and ring" carvings on bedrock a regarded as types of E25 Man-Made Feature.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E11 Modification: P31 has modified (was modified by)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E19 Physical Object: P56 bears feature (is found on)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E12 Production: P108 has produced (was produced by)
E79 Part Addition: P110 augmented (was augmented by)
E80 Part Removal: P112 diminished (was diminished by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E26 Physical Feature

Subclass of: E18 Physical Thing,
Superclass of: E25 Man-Made Feature, E27 Site,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiable features that are physically attached in an integral way to particular physical objects.
Instances of E26 Physical Feature share many of the attributes of instances of E19 Physical Object. They may have a one-, two- or three-dimensional geometric extent, but there are no natural borders that separate them completely in an objective way from the carrier objects. For example, a doorway is a feature but the door itself, being attached by hinges, is not.
Instances of E26 Physical Feature can be features in a narrower sense, such as scratches, holes, reliefs, surface colours, reflection zones in an opal crystal or a density change in a piece of wood. In the wider sense, they are portions of particular objects with partially imaginary borders, such as the core of the Earth, an area of property on the surface of the Earth, a landscape or the head of a contiguous marble statue. They can be measured and dated, and it is sometimes possible to state who or what is or was responsible for them. They cannot be separated from the carrier object, but a segment of the carrier object may be identified (or sometimes removed) carrying the complete feature.
This definition coincides with the definition of "fiat objects" (Smith & Varzi, 2000, pp.401-420), with the exception of aggregates of "bona fide objects".
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E19 Physical Object: P56 bears feature (is found on)
The entity inherits references:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E27 Site

Subclass of: E26 Physical Feature,
Scope Note: This class comprises pieces of land or sea floor.
In contrast to the purely geometric notion of E53 Place, this class describes constellations of matter on the surface of the Earth or other celestial body, which can be represented by photographs, paintings and maps.
Instances of E27 Site are composed of relatively immobile material items and features in a particular configuration at a particular location.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E19 Physical Object: P56 bears feature (is found on)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E28 Conceptual Object

Subclass of: E71 Man-Made Thing,
Superclass of: E55 Type, E89 Propositional Object, E90 Symbolic Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises non-material products of our minds and other human produced data that have become objects of a discourse about their identity, circumstances of creation or historical implication. The production of such information may have been supported by the use of technical devices such as cameras or computers.
Characteristically, instances of this class are created, invented or thought by someone, and then may be documented or communicated between persons. Instances of E28 Conceptual Object have the ability to exist on more than one particular carrier at the same time, such as paper, electronic signals, marks, audio media, paintings, photos, human memories, etc.
They cannot be destroyed. They exist as long as they can be found on at least one carrier or in at least one human memory. Their existence ends when the last carrier and the last memory are lost.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E29 Design or Procedure

Subclass of: E73 Information Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises documented plans for the execution of actions in order to achieve a result of a specific quality, form or contents. In particular it comprises plans for deliberate human activities that may result in the modification or production of instances of E24 Physical Thing.
Instances of E29 Design or Procedure can be structured in parts and sequences or depend on others. This is modelled using P69 is associated with.
Designs or procedures can be seen as one of the following:
1. A schema for the activities it describes
2. A schema of the products that result from their application.
3. An independent intellectual product that may have never been applied, such as Leonardo da Vinci's famous plans for flying machines.
Because designs or procedures may never be applied or only partially executed, the CRM models a loose relationship between the plan and the respective product.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P69 is associated with: E29 Design or Procedure   (P69.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by): E57 Material
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E7 Activity: P33 used specific technique (was used by)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E29 Design or Procedure: P69 is associated with   (P69.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E30 Right

Subclass of: E89 Propositional Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises legal privileges concerning material and immaterial things or their derivatives.
These include reproduction and property rights.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E39 Actor: P75 possesses (is possessed by)
E72 Legal Object: P104 is subject to (applies to)
P105 right held by (has right on): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)

E31 Document

Subclass of: E73 Information Object,
Superclass of: E32 Authority Document,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiable immaterial items that make propositions about reality.
These propositions may be expressed in text, graphics, images, audiograms, videograms or by other similar means. Documentation databases are regarded as a special case of E31 Document. This class should not be confused with the term "document" in Information Technology, which is compatible with E73 Information Object.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P70 documents (is documented in): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E32 Authority Document

Subclass of: E31 Document,
Scope Note: This class comprises encyclopaedia, thesauri, authority lists and other documents that define terminology or conceptual systems for consistent use.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P71 lists (is listed in): E55 Type   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P70 documents (is documented in): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E33 Linguistic Object

Subclass of: E73 Information Object,
Superclass of: E34 Inscription, E35 Title,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiable expressions in natural language or languages.
Instances of E33 Linguistic Object can be expressed in many ways: e.g. as written texts, recorded speech or sign language. However, the CRM treats instances of E33 Linguistic Object independently from the medium or method by which they are expressed. Expressions in formal languages, such as computer code or mathematical formulae, are not treated as instances of E33 Linguistic Object by the CRM. These should be modelled as instances of E73 Information Object.
The text of an instance of E33 Linguistic Object can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P73 has translation (is translation of): E33 Linguistic Object   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P72 has language (is language of): E56 Language
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is only referenced by itself.
E33 Linguistic Object: P73 has translation (is translation of)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E34 Inscription

Subclass of: E33 Linguistic Object, E37 Mark,
Scope Note: This class comprises recognisable, short texts attached to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
The transcription of the text can be documented in a note by P3 has note: E62 String. The alphabet used can be documented by P2 has type: E55 Type. This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of an inscription, but the underlying prototype. The physical embodiment is modelled in the CRM as E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
The relationship of a physical copy of a book to the text it contains is modelled using E84 Information Carrier. P128 carries (is carried by) E33 Linguistic Object.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P73 has translation (is translation of): E33 Linguistic Object   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P72 has language (is language of): E56 Language
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E33 Linguistic Object: P73 has translation (is translation of)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E35 Title

Subclass of: E33 Linguistic Object, E41 Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises the names assigned to works, such as texts, artworks or pieces of music.
Titles are proper noun phrases or verbal phrases, and should not be confused with generic object names such as "chair", "painting" or "book" (the latter are common nouns and are modelled in the CRM as instances of E55 Type). Titles may be assigned by the creator of the work itself, or by a social group.
This class also comprises the translations of titles that are used as surrogates for the original titles in different social contexts.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P73 has translation (is translation of): E33 Linguistic Object   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P72 has language (is language of): E56 Language
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E71 Man-Made Thing: P102 has title (is title of)   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E33 Linguistic Object: P73 has translation (is translation of)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E36 Visual Item

Subclass of: E73 Information Object,
Superclass of: E37 Mark, E38 Image,
Scope Note: This class comprises the intellectual or conceptual aspects of recognisable marks and images.
This class does not intend to describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of an individual physical embodiment of a visual item, but the underlying prototype. For example, a mark such as the ICOM logo is generally considered to be the same logo when used on any number of publications. The size, orientation and colour may change, but the logo remains uniquely identifiable. The same is true of images that are reproduced many times. This means that visual items are independent of their physical support.
The class E36 Visual Item provides a means of identifying and linking together instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that carry the same visual symbols, marks or images etc. The property P62 depicts (is depicted by) between E24 Physical Man-Made Thing and depicted subjects (E1 CRM Entity) can be regarded as a short-cut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity, which in addition captures the optical features of the depiction.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E37 Mark

Subclass of: E36 Visual Item,
Superclass of: E34 Inscription,
Scope Note: This class comprises symbols, signs, signatures or short texts applied to instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing by arbitrary techniques in order to indicate the creator, owner, dedications, purpose, etc.
This class specifically excludes features that have no semantic significance, such as scratches or tool marks. These should be documented as instances of E25 Man-Made Feature.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E38 Image

Subclass of: E36 Visual Item,
Scope Note: This class comprises distributions of form, tone and colour that may be found on surfaces such as photos, paintings, prints and sculptures or directly on electronic media.
The degree to which variations in the distribution of form and colour affect the identity of an instance of E38 Image depends on a given purpose. The original painting of the Mona Lisa in the Louvre may be said to bear the same instance of E38 Image as reproductions in the form of transparencies, postcards, posters or T-shirts, even though they may differ in size and carrier and may vary in tone and colour. The images in a "spot the difference" competition are not the same with respect to their context, however similar they may at first appear.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P138 represents (has representation): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E39 Actor

Subclass of: E77 Persistent Item,
Superclass of: E21 Person, E74 Group,
Scope Note: This class comprises people, either individually or in groups, who have the potential to perform intentional actions for which they can be held responsible.
The CRM does not attempt to model the inadvertent actions of such actors. Individual people should be documented as instances of E21 Person, whereas groups should be documented as instances of either E74 Group or its subclass E40 Legal Body.
Examples Properties
P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P76 has contact point (provides access to): E51 Contact Point
P75 possesses (is possessed by): E30 Right
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of): E53 Place
The entity is referenced by:
E5 Event: P11 had participant (participated in)
E7 Activity: P14 carried out by (performed)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E8 Acquisition: P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E8 Acquisition: P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P29 custody received by (received custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E18 Physical Thing: P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
E18 Physical Thing: P52 has current owner (is current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E72 Legal Object: P105 right held by (has right on)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E85 Joining: P143 joined (was joined by)
E86 Leaving: P145 separated (left by)
E74 Group: P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
E78 Collection: P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E40 Legal Body

Subclass of: E74 Group,
Scope Note: This class comprises institutions or groups of people that have obtained a legal recognition as a group and can act collectively as agents.
This means that they can perform actions, own property, create or destroy things and can be held collectively responsible for their actions like individual people. The term 'personne morale' is often used for this in French.
Examples Properties
P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of): E39 Actor
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P76 has contact point (provides access to): E51 Contact Point
P75 possesses (is possessed by): E30 Right
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of): E53 Place
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E5 Event: P11 had participant (participated in)
E7 Activity: P14 carried out by (performed)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E8 Acquisition: P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E8 Acquisition: P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P29 custody received by (received custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E18 Physical Thing: P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
E18 Physical Thing: P52 has current owner (is current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E66 Formation: P95 has formed (was formed by)
E68 Dissolution: P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
E72 Legal Object: P105 right held by (has right on)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E85 Joining: P143 joined (was joined by)
E85 Joining: P144 joined with (gained member by)
E86 Leaving: P145 separated (left by)
E86 Leaving: P146 separated from (lost member by)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E74 Group: P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
E78 Collection: P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)

E41 Appellation

Subclass of: E90 Symbolic Object,
Superclass of: E35 Title, E42 Identifier, E44 Place Appellation, E49 Time Appellation, E51 Contact Point, E75 Conceptual Object Appellation, E82 Actor Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises all sequences of signs of any nature, either meaningful or not, that are used or can be used to refer to and identify a specific instance of some class within a certain context.
Instances of E41 Appellation do not identify things by their meaning, even if they happen to have one, but by convention, tradition, or agreement. Instances of E41 Appellation are cultural constructs; as such, they have a context, a history, and a use in time and space by some group of users. A given instance of E41 Appellation can have alternative forms, i.e., other instances of E41 Appellation that are always regarded as equivalent independent from the thing it denotes.
Specific subclasses of E41 Appellation should be used when instances of E41 Appellation of a characteristic form are used for particular objects. Instances of E49 Time Appellation, for example, which take the form of instances of E50 Date, can be easily recognised.
E41 Appellation should not be confused with the act of naming something. Cf. E15 Identifier Assignment
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E42 Identifier

Subclass of: E41 Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises strings or codes assigned to instances of E1 CRM Entity in order to identify them uniquely and permanently within the context of one or more organisations. Such codes are often known as inventory numbers, registration codes, etc. and are typically composed of alphanumeric sequences. The class E42 Identifier is not normally used for machine-generated identifiers used for automated processing unless these are also used by human agents.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E15 Identifier Assignment: P37 assigned (was assigned by)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
E1 CRM Entity: P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
E19 Physical Object: P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E44 Place Appellation

Subclass of: E41 Appellation,
Superclass of: E45 Address, E46 Section Definition, E47 Spatial Coordinates, E48 Place Name,
Scope Note: This class comprises any sort of identifier characteristically used to refer to an E53 Place.
Instances of E44 Place Appellation may vary in their degree of precision and their meaning may vary over time - the same instance of E44 Place Appellation may be used to refer to several places, either because of cultural shifts, or because objects used as reference points have moved around. Instances of E44 Place Appellation can be extremely varied in form: postal addresses, instances of E47 Spatial Coordinate, and parts of buildings can all be considered as instances of E44 Place Appellation.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E53 Place: P87 is identified by (identifies)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E45 Address

Subclass of: E44 Place Appellation, E51 Contact Point,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiers expressed in coding systems for places, such as postal addresses used for mailing.
An E45 Address can be considered both as the name of an E53 Place and as an E51 Contact Point for an E39 Actor. This dual aspect is reflected in the multiple inheritance. However, some forms of mailing addresses, such as a postal box, are only instances of E51 Contact Point, since they do not identify any particular Place. These should not be documented as instances of E45 Address.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E53 Place: P87 is identified by (identifies)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E39 Actor: P76 has contact point (provides access to)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E46 Section Definition

Subclass of: E44 Place Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises areas of objects referred to in terms specific to the general geometry or structure of its kind.
The 'prow' of the boat, the 'frame' of the picture, the 'front' of the building are all instances of E46 Section Definition. The class highlights the fact that parts of objects can be treated as locations. This holds in particular for features without natural boundaries, such as the "head" of a marble statue made out of one block (cf. E53 Place). In answer to the question 'where is the signature?' one might reply 'on the lower left corner'. (Section Definition is closely related to the term "segment" in Gerstl, P.& Pribbenow, S, 1996 " A conceptual theory of part - whole relations and its applications", Data & Knowledge Engineering 20 305-322, North Holland- Elsevier ).
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E18 Physical Thing: P58 has section definition (defines section)
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): short cut of
P59 has section (is located on or within): short cut of
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E53 Place: P87 is identified by (identifies)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E47 Spatial Coordinates

Subclass of: E44 Place Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises the textual or numeric information required to locate specific instances of E53 Place within schemes of spatial identification.
Coordinates are a specific form of E44 Place Appellation, that is, a means of referring to a particular E53 Place. Coordinates are not restricted to longitude, latitude and altitude. Any regular system of reference that maps onto an E19 Physical Object can be used to generate coordinates.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E53 Place: P87 is identified by (identifies)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E48 Place Name

Subclass of: E44 Place Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises particular and common forms of E44 Place Appellation.
Place Names may change their application over time: the name of an E53 Place may change, and a name may be reused for a different E53 Place. Instances of E48 Place Name are typically subject to place name gazetteers.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E53 Place: P87 is identified by (identifies)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E49 Time Appellation

Subclass of: E41 Appellation,
Superclass of: E50 Date,
Scope Note: This class comprises all forms of names or codes, such as historical periods, and dates, which are characteristically used to refer to a specific E52 Time-Span.
The instances of E49 Time Appellation may vary in their degree of precision, and they may be relative to other time frames, "Before Christ" for example. Instances of E52 Time-Span are often defined by reference to a cultural period or an event e.g. 'the duration of the Ming Dynasty'.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E52 Time-Span: P78 is identified by (identifies)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E50 Date

Subclass of: E49 Time Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises specific forms of E49 Time Appellation.

Dates may vary in their degree of precision.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E52 Time-Span: P78 is identified by (identifies)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E51 Contact Point

Subclass of: E41 Appellation,
Superclass of: E45 Address,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiers employed, or understood, by communication services to direct communications to an instance of E39 Actor. These include E-mail addresses, telephone numbers, post office boxes, Fax numbers, etc. Most postal addresses can be considered both as instances of E44 Place Appellation and E51 Contact Point. In such cases the subclass E45 Address should be used..
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E39 Actor: P76 has contact point (provides access to)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E52 Time-Span

Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity,
Scope Note: This class comprises abstract temporal extents, in the sense of Galilean physics, having a beginning, an end and a duration.
Time Span has no other semantic connotations. Time-Spans are used to define the temporal extent of instances of E4 Period, E5 Event and any other phenomena valid for a certain time. An E52 Time-Span may be identified by one or more instances of E49 Time Appellation.
Since our knowledge of history is imperfect, instances of E52 Time-Span can best be considered as approximations of the actual Time-Spans of temporal entities. The properties of E52 Time-Span are intended to allow these approximations to be expressed precisely. An extreme case of approximation, might, for example, define an E52 Time-Span having unknown beginning, end and duration. Used as a common E52 Time-Span for two events, it would nevertheless define them as being simultaneous, even if nothing else was known.
Automatic processing and querying of instances of E52 Time-Span is facilitated if data can be parsed into an E61 Time Primitive.
Examples Properties
P78 is identified by (identifies): E49 Time Appellation
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P86 falls within (contains): E52 Time-Span
P79 beginning is qualified by: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P80 end is qualified by: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of): E54 Dimension
P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of): E54 Dimension
P81 ongoing throughout: E61 Time Primitive
P82 at some time within: E61 Time Primitive
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E2 Temporal Entity: P4 has time-span (is time-span of)
E52 Time-Span: P86 falls within (contains)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E53 Place

Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity,
Scope Note: This class comprises extents in space, in particular on the surface of the earth, in the pure sense of physics: independent from temporal phenomena and matter.
The instances of E53 Place are usually determined by reference to the position of "immobile" objects such as buildings, cities, mountains, rivers, or dedicated geodetic marks. A Place can be determined by combining a frame of reference and a location with respect to this frame. It may be identified by one or more instances of E44 Place Appellation.
It is sometimes argued that instances of E53 Place are best identified by global coordinates or absolute reference systems. However, relative references are often more relevant in the context of cultural documentation and tend to be more precise. In particular, we are often interested in position in relation to large, mobile objects, such as ships. For example, the Place at which Nelson died is known with reference to a large mobile object - H.M.S Victory. A resolution of this Place in terms of absolute coordinates would require knowledge of the movements of the vessel and the precise time of death, either of which may be revised, and the result would lack historical and cultural relevance.
Any object can serve as a frame of reference for E53 Place determination. The model foresees the notion of a "section" of an E19 Physical Object as a valid E53 Place determination.
Examples Properties
P87 is identified by (identifies): E44 Place Appellation
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P88 consists of (forms part of): E53 Place
P89 falls within (contains): E53 Place
P122 borders with: E53 Place
P121 overlaps with: E53 Place
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E9 Move: P26 moved to (was destination of)
E9 Move: P27 moved from (was origin of)
E18 Physical Thing: P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
short cut of: E9 Move)
E19 Physical Object: P55 has current location (currently holds)
short cut of: E9 Move)
E18 Physical Thing: P59 has section (is located on or within)   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
E4 Period: P7 took place at (witnessed)
E19 Physical Object: P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)
E39 Actor: P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)
E53 Place: P88 consists of (forms part of)
E53 Place: P89 falls within (contains)
E53 Place: P122 borders with
E53 Place: P121 overlaps with
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E54 Dimension

Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity,
Scope Note: This class comprises quantifiable properties that can be measured by some calibrated means and can be approximated by values, i.e. points or regions in a mathematical or conceptual space, such as natural or real numbers, RGB values etc.
An instance of E54 Dimension represents the true quantity, independent from its numerical approximation, e.g. in inches or in cm. The properties of the class E54 Dimension allow for expressing the numerical approximation of the values of an instance of E54 Dimension. If the true values belong to a non-discrete space, such as spatial distances, it is recommended to record them as approximations by intervals or regions of indeterminacy enclosing the assumed true values. For instance, a length of 5 cm may be recorded as 4.5-5.5 cm, according to the precision of the respective observation. Note, that interoperability of values described in different units depends critically on the representation as value regions.
Numerical approximations in archaic instances of E58 Measurement Unit used in historical records should be preserved. Equivalents corresponding to current knowledge should be recorded as additional instances of E54 Dimension as appropriate.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P91 has unit (is unit of): E58 Measurement Unit
P90 has value: E60 Number
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E16 Measurement: P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
E70 Thing: P43 has dimension (is dimension of)
short cut of: E16 Measurement)
E52 Time-Span: P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of)
E52 Time-Span: P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E55 Type

Subclass of: E28 Conceptual Object,
Superclass of: E56 Language, E57 Material, E58 Measurement Unit,
Scope Note: This class comprises concepts denoted by terms from thesauri and controlled vocabularies used to characterize and classify instances of CRM classes. Instances of E55 Type represent concepts in contrast to instances of E41 Appellation which are used to name instances of CRM classes.
E55 Type is the CRM's interface to domain specific ontologies and thesauri. These can be represented in the CRM as subclasses of E55 Type, forming hierarchies of terms, i.e. instances of E55 Type linked via P127 has broader term (has narrower term). Such hierarchies may be extended with additional properties.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E7 Activity: P32 used general technique (was technique of)
E17 Type Assignment: P42 assigned (was assigned by)
E32 Authority Document: P71 lists (is listed in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P135 created type (was created by)
E1 CRM Entity: P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P2 has type (is type of)
E7 Activity: P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
E7 Activity: P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
E55 Type: P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
E70 Thing: P101 had as general use (was use of)
E71 Man-Made Thing: P103 was intended for (was intention of)
P3 has note: P3.1 has type
P14 carried out by (performed): P14.1 in the role of
P16 used specific object (was used for): P16.1 mode of use
P19 was intended use of (was made for): P19.1 mode of use
P69 is associated with: P69.1 has type
P62 depicts (is depicted by): P62.1 mode of depiction
P67 refers to (is referred to by): P67.1 has type
P102 has title (is title of): P102.1 has type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): P130.1 kind of similarity
P136 was based on (supported type creation): P136.1 in the taxonomic role
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): P137.1 in the taxonomic role
P138 represents (has representation): P138.1 mode of representation
P139 has alternative form: P139.1 has type
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E56 Language

Subclass of: E55 Type,
Scope Note: This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the natural languages in the sense of concepts.
This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E56 Language, e.g.: "instances of Mandarin Chinese".
It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used to denote instances of E56 Language, such as those defined in ISO 639: 1988.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E33 Linguistic Object: P72 has language (is language of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P32 used general technique (was technique of)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E17 Type Assignment: P42 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E32 Authority Document: P71 lists (is listed in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P135 created type (was created by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P2 has type (is type of)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
E7 Activity: P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E55 Type: P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
E70 Thing: P101 had as general use (was use of)
E71 Man-Made Thing: P103 was intended for (was intention of)
P3 has note: P3.1 has type
P14 carried out by (performed): P14.1 in the role of
P16 used specific object (was used for): P16.1 mode of use
P19 was intended use of (was made for): P19.1 mode of use
P69 is associated with: P69.1 has type
P62 depicts (is depicted by): P62.1 mode of depiction
P67 refers to (is referred to by): P67.1 has type
P102 has title (is title of): P102.1 has type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): P130.1 kind of similarity
P136 was based on (supported type creation): P136.1 in the taxonomic role
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): P137.1 in the taxonomic role
P138 represents (has representation): P138.1 mode of representation
P139 has alternative form: P139.1 has type

E57 Material

Subclass of: E55 Type,
Scope Note: This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the concepts of materials.
Instances of E57 Material may denote properties of matter before its use, during its use, and as incorporated in an object, such as ultramarine powder, tempera paste, reinforced concrete. Discrete pieces of raw-materials kept in museums, such as bricks, sheets of fabric, pieces of metal, should be modelled individually in the same way as other objects. Discrete used or processed pieces, such as the stones from Nefer Titi's temple, should be modelled as parts (cf. P46 is composed of).
This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E57 Material, e.g.: "instances of gold".
It is recommended that internationally or nationally agreed codes and terminology are used.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E11 Modification: P126 employed (was employed in)
E18 Physical Thing: P45 consists of (is incorporated in)
E29 Design or Procedure: P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P32 used general technique (was technique of)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E17 Type Assignment: P42 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E32 Authority Document: P71 lists (is listed in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P135 created type (was created by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P2 has type (is type of)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
E7 Activity: P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E55 Type: P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
E70 Thing: P101 had as general use (was use of)
E71 Man-Made Thing: P103 was intended for (was intention of)
P3 has note: P3.1 has type
P14 carried out by (performed): P14.1 in the role of
P16 used specific object (was used for): P16.1 mode of use
P19 was intended use of (was made for): P19.1 mode of use
P69 is associated with: P69.1 has type
P62 depicts (is depicted by): P62.1 mode of depiction
P67 refers to (is referred to by): P67.1 has type
P102 has title (is title of): P102.1 has type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): P130.1 kind of similarity
P136 was based on (supported type creation): P136.1 in the taxonomic role
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): P137.1 in the taxonomic role
P138 represents (has representation): P138.1 mode of representation
P139 has alternative form: P139.1 has type

E58 Measurement Unit

Subclass of: E55 Type,
Scope Note: This class is a specialization of E55 Type and comprises the types of measurement units: feet, inches, centimetres, litres, lumens, etc.
This type is used categorically in the model without reference to instances of it, i.e. the Model does not foresee the description of instances of instances of E58 Measurement Unit, e.g.: "instances of cm".
Systeme International (SI) units or internationally recognized non-SI terms should be used whenever possible. (ISO 1000: 1992). Archaic Measurement Units used in historical records should be preserved.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P127 has broader term (has narrower term): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E54 Dimension: P91 has unit (is unit of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P32 used general technique (was technique of)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E17 Type Assignment: P42 assigned (was assigned by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E32 Authority Document: P71 lists (is listed in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P135 created type (was created by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P2 has type (is type of)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)
E7 Activity: P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E55 Type: P127 has broader term (has narrower term)
E70 Thing: P101 had as general use (was use of)
E71 Man-Made Thing: P103 was intended for (was intention of)
P3 has note: P3.1 has type
P14 carried out by (performed): P14.1 in the role of
P16 used specific object (was used for): P16.1 mode of use
P19 was intended use of (was made for): P19.1 mode of use
P69 is associated with: P69.1 has type
P62 depicts (is depicted by): P62.1 mode of depiction
P67 refers to (is referred to by): P67.1 has type
P102 has title (is title of): P102.1 has type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): P130.1 kind of similarity
P136 was based on (supported type creation): P136.1 in the taxonomic role
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): P137.1 in the taxonomic role
P138 represents (has representation): P138.1 mode of representation
P139 has alternative form: P139.1 has type

E59 Primitive Value

Superclass of: E60 Number, E61 Time Primitive, E62 String,
Scope Note: This class comprises primitive values used as documentation elements, which are not further elaborated upon within the model.
As such they are not considered as elements within our universe of discourse. No specific implementation recommendations are made. It is recommended that the primitive value system from the implementation platform be used to substitute for this class and its subclasses.
Examples Properties
The entity is not referenced.

E60 Number

Subclass of: E59 Primitive Value,
Scope Note: This class comprises any encoding of computable (algebraic) values such as integers, real numbers, complex numbers, vectors, tensors etc., including intervals of these values to express limited precision.
Numbers are fundamentally distinct from identifiers in continua, such as instances of E50 Date and E47 Spatial Coordinate, even though their encoding may be similar. Instances of E60 Number can be combined with each other in algebraic operations to yield other instances of E60 Number, e.g., 1+1=2. Identifiers in continua may be combined with numbers expressing distances to yield new identifiers, e.g., 1924-01-31 + 2 days = 1924-02-02. Cf. E54 Dimension
Examples Properties
The entity is referenced by:
E19 Physical Object: P57 has number of parts
E54 Dimension: P90 has value

E61 Time Primitive

Subclass of: E59 Primitive Value,
Scope Note: This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for time that should be implemented with appropriate validation, precision and interval logic to express date ranges relevant to cultural documentation.
E61 Time Primitive is not further elaborated upon within the model.
Examples Properties
The entity is referenced by:
E52 Time-Span: P81 ongoing throughout
E52 Time-Span: P82 at some time within

E62 String

Subclass of: E59 Primitive Value,
Scope Note: This class comprises the instances of E59 Primitive Values used for documentation such as free text strings, bitmaps, vector graphics, etc.
E62 String is not further elaborated upon within the model
Examples Properties
The entity is referenced by:
E1 CRM Entity: P3 has note   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
E52 Time-Span: P79 beginning is qualified by   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
E52 Time-Span: P80 end is qualified by   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)

E63 Beginning of Existence

Subclass of: E5 Event,
Superclass of: E12 Production, E65 Creation, E66 Formation, E67 Birth, E81 Transformation,
Scope Note: This class comprises events that bring into existence any E77 Persistent Item.
It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (intellectual products, physical items, groups of people, living beings) beginning to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a terminus postquem and antequem.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E64 End of Existence

Subclass of: E5 Event,
Superclass of: E6 Destruction, E68 Dissolution, E69 Death, E81 Transformation,
Scope Note: This class comprises events that end the existence of any E77 Persistent Item.
It may be used for temporal reasoning about things (physical items, groups of people, living beings) ceasing to exist; it serves as a hook for determination of a terminus postquem and antequem. In cases where substance from a Persistent Item continues to exist in a new form, the process would be documented by E81 Transformation.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E65 Creation

Subclass of: E7 Activity, E63 Beginning of Existence,
Superclass of: E83 Type Creation,
Scope Note: This class comprises events that result in the creation of conceptual items or immaterial products, such as legends, poems, texts, music, images, movies, laws, types etc.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E66 Formation

Subclass of: E7 Activity, E63 Beginning of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises events that result in the formation of a formal or informal E74 Group of people, such as a club, society, association, corporation or nation.
E66 Formation does not include the arbitrary aggregation of people who do not act as a collective.
The formation of an instance of E74 Group does not mean that the group is populated with members at the time of formation. In order to express the joining of members at the time of formation, the respective activity should be simultaneously an instance of both E66 Formation and E85 Joining.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P95 has formed (was formed by): E74 Group
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E67 Birth

Subclass of: E63 Beginning of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises the birth of a human beings. E67 Birth is a biological event focussing on the context of people coming into life. (E63 Beginning of Existence comprises the coming into life of any living beings).
Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same E67 Birth event. The introduction of the E67 Birth event as a documentation element allows the description of a range of family relationships in a simple model. Suitable extensions may describe more details and the complexity of motherhood with the intervention of modern medicine. In this model, the biological father is not seen as a necessary participant in the E67 Birth event.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P96 by mother (gave birth): E21 Person
P97 from father (was father for): E21 Person
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P98 brought into life (was born): E21 Person
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E68 Dissolution

Subclass of: E64 End of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises the events that result in the formal or informal termination of an E74 Group of people.
If the dissolution was deliberate, the Dissolution event should also be instantiated as an E7 Activity.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P99 dissolved (was dissolved by): E74 Group
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E69 Death

Subclass of: E64 End of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises the deaths of human beings.
If a person is killed, their death should be instantiated as E69 Death and as E7 Activity. The death or perishing of other living beings should be documented using E64 End of Existence.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P100 was death of (died in): E21 Person
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E70 Thing

Subclass of: E77 Persistent Item,
Superclass of: E71 Man-Made Thing, E72 Legal Object,
Scope Note: This general class comprises usable discrete, identifiable, instances of E77 Persistent Item that are documented as single units.
They can be either intellectual products or physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance either have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concept or structure.
Examples Properties
P43 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension
P101 had as general use (was use of) E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on) E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E71 Man-Made Thing

Subclass of: E70 Thing,
Superclass of: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing, E28 Conceptual Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises discrete, identifiable man-made items that are documented as single units.
These items are either intellectual products or man-made physical things, and are characterized by relative stability. They may for instance have a solid physical form, an electronic encoding, or they may be logical concepts or structures.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of) E35 Title
(P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P103 was intended for (was intention of) E55 Type
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E72 Legal Object

Subclass of: E70 Thing,
Superclass of: E18 Physical Thing, E90 Symbolic Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises those material or immaterial items to which instances of E30 Right, such as the right of ownership or use, can be applied.
This is true for all E18 Physical Thing. In the case of instances of E28 Conceptual Object, however, the identity of the E28 Conceptual Object or the method of its use may be too ambiguous to reliably establish instances of E30 Right, as in the case of taxa and inspirations. Ownership of corporations is currently regarded as out of scope of the CRM.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E73 Information Object

Subclass of: E89 Propositional Object, E90 Symbolic Object,
Superclass of: E29 Design or Procedure, E31 Document, E33 Linguistic Object, E36 Visual Item,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiable immaterial items, such as a poems, jokes, data sets, images, texts, multimedia objects, procedural prescriptions, computer program code, algorithm or mathematical formulae, that have an objectively recognizable structure and are documented as single units.
An E73 Information Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously.
Instances of E73 Information Object of a linguistic nature should be declared as instances of the E33 Linguistic Object subclass. Instances of E73 Information Object of a documentary nature should be declared as instances of the E31 Document subclass. Conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E73 Information Object, nor are ideas without a reproducible expression.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P128 carries (is carried by)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E74 Group

Subclass of: E39 Actor,
Superclass of: E40 Legal Body,
Scope Note: This class comprises any gatherings or organizations of two or more people that act collectively or in a similar way due to any form of unifying relationship. In the wider sense this class also comprises official positions which used to be regarded in certain contexts as one actor, independent of the current holder of the office, such as the president of a country.
A gathering of people becomes an E74 Group when it exhibits organizational characteristics usually typified by a set of ideas or beliefs held in common, or actions performed together. These might be communication, creating some common artifact, a common purpose such as study, worship, business, sports, etc. Nationality can be modeled as membership in an E74 Group (cf. HumanML markup). Married couples and other concepts of family are regarded as particular examples of E74 Group.
Examples Properties
P131 is identified by (identifies): E82 Actor Appellation
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of): E39 Actor
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P76 has contact point (provides access to): E51 Contact Point
P75 possesses (is possessed by): E30 Right
P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of): E53 Place
The entity is referenced by:
E66 Formation: P95 has formed (was formed by)
E68 Dissolution: P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
E85 Joining: P144 joined with (gained member by)
E86 Leaving: P146 separated from (lost member by)
The entity inherits references:
E5 Event: P11 had participant (participated in)
E7 Activity: P14 carried out by (performed)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E8 Acquisition: P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E8 Acquisition: P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P29 custody received by (received custody through)   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E18 Physical Thing: P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
E18 Physical Thing: P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
E18 Physical Thing: P52 has current owner (is current owner of)   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E72 Legal Object: P105 right held by (has right on)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E85 Joining: P143 joined (was joined by)
E86 Leaving: P145 separated (left by)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E74 Group: P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)
E78 Collection: P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation

Subclass of: E41 Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises all specific identifiers of intellectual products or standardized patterns.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E77 Persistent Item

Subclass of: E1 CRM Entity,
Superclass of: E39 Actor, E70 Thing,
Scope Note: This class comprises items that have a persistent identity, sometimes known as "endurants" in philosophy.
They can be repeatedly recognized within the duration of their existence by identity criteria rather than by continuity or observation. Persistent Items can be either physical entities, such as people, animals or things, or conceptual entities such as ideas, concepts, products of the imagination or common names.
The criteria that determine the identity of an item are often difficult to establish -; the decision depends largely on the judgement of the observer. For example, a building is regarded as no longer existing if it is dismantled and the materials reused in a different configuration. On the other hand, human beings go through radical and profound changes during their life-span, affecting both material composition and form, yet preserve their identity by other criteria. Similarly, inanimate objects may be subject to exchange of parts and matter. The class E77 Persistent Item does not take any position about the nature of the applicable identity criteria and if actual knowledge about identity of an instance of this class exists. There may be cases, where the identity of an E77 Persistent Item is not decidable by a certain state of knowledge.
The main classes of objects that fall outside the scope the E77 Persistent Item class are temporal objects such as periods, events and acts, and descriptive properties.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is referenced by:
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E78 Collection

Subclass of: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Scope Note: This class comprises aggregations of instances of E18 Physical Thing that are assembled and maintained ("curated" and "preserved, " in museological terminology) by one or more instances of E39 Actor over time for a specific purpose and audience, and according to a particular collection development plan.
Items may be added or removed from an E78 Collection in pursuit of this plan. This class should not be confused with the E39 Actor maintaining the E78 Collection often referred to with the name of the E78 Collection (e.g. "The Wallace Collection decided...").
Collective objects in the general sense, like a tomb full of gifts, a folder with stamps or a set of chessmen, should be documented as instances of E19 Physical Object, and not as instances of E78 Collection. This is because they form wholes either because they are physically bound together or because they are kept together for their functionality.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of): E39 Actor
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E87 Curation Activity: P147 curated (was curated by)
The entity inherits references:
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E11 Modification: P31 has modified (was modified by)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E12 Production: P108 has produced (was produced by)
E79 Part Addition: P110 augmented (was augmented by)
E80 Part Removal: P112 diminished (was diminished by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E79 Part Addition

Subclass of: E11 Modification,
Scope Note: This class comprises activities that result in an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing being increased, enlarged or augmented by the addition of a part.
Typical scenarios include the attachment of an accessory, the integration of a component, the addition of an element to an aggregate object, or the accessioning of an object into a curated E78 Collection. Objects to which parts are added are, by definition, man-made, since the addition of a part implies a human activity. Following the addition of parts, the resulting man-made assemblages are treated objectively as single identifiable wholes, made up of constituent or component parts bound together either physically (for example the engine becoming a part of the car), or by sharing a common purpose (such as the 32 chess pieces that make up a chess set). This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history and continuity of identity of objects that are integrated into other objects over time, such as precious gemstones being repeatedly incorporated into different items of jewellery, or cultural artifacts being added to different museum instances of E78 Collection over their lifespan.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P110 augmented (was augmented by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P111 added (was added by): E18 Physical Thing
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E80 Part Removal

Subclass of: E11 Modification,
Scope Note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E18 Physical Thing being decreased by the removal of a part.
Typical scenarios include the detachment of an accessory, the removal of a component or part of a composite object, or the deaccessioning of an object from a curated E78 Collection. If the E80 Part Removal results in the total decomposition of the original object into pieces, such that the whole ceases to exist, the activity should instead be modelled as an E81 Transformation, i.e. a simultaneous destruction and production. In cases where the part removed has no discernible identity prior to its removal but does have an identity subsequent to its removal, the activity should be regarded as both E80 Part Removal and E12 Production. This class of activities forms a basis for reasoning about the history, and continuity of identity over time, of objects that are removed from other objects, such as precious gemstones being extracted from different items of jewelry, or cultural artifacts being deaccessioned from different museum collections over their lifespan.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P31 has modified (was modified by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P112 diminished (was diminished by): E24 Physical Man-Made Thing
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P113 removed (was removed by): E18 Physical Thing
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
P126 employed (was employed in): E57 Material
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E81 Transformation

Subclass of: E63 Beginning of Existence, E64 End of Existence,
Scope Note: This class comprises the events that result in the simultaneous destruction of one E77 Persistent Item and the creation of another E77 Persistent Item that preserves recognizable substance from the first but has a fundamentally different nature and identity.
Although the two instances of E77 Persistent Item are treated as discrete entities having separate, unique identities, they are causally connected through the E81 Transformation; the destruction of the first E77 Persistent Item directly causes the creation of the second using or preserving some relevant substance. Instances of E81 Transformation are therefore distinct from re-classifications (documented using E17 Type Assignment) or modifications (documented using E11 Modification) of objects that do not fundamentally change their nature or identity. Characteristic cases are reconstructions and repurposing of historical buildings or ruins, fires leaving buildings in ruins, taxidermy of specimen in natural history and the reorganization of a corporate body into a new one.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P123 resulted in (resulted from): E77 Persistent Item
P124 transformed (was transformed by): E77 Persistent Item
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E82 Actor Appellation

Subclass of: E41 Appellation,
Scope Note: This class comprises any sort of name, number, code or symbol characteristically used to identify an E39 Actor.
An E39 Actor will typically have more than one E82 Actor Appellation, and instances of E82 Actor Appellation in turn may have alternative representations. The distinction between corporate and personal names, which is particularly important in library applications, should be made by explicitly linking the E82 Actor Appellation to an instance of either E21 Person or E74 Group/E40 Legal Body. If this is not possible, the distinction can be made through the use of the P2 has type mechanism.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P139 has alternative form: E41 Appellation   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is referenced by:
E39 Actor: P131 is identified by (identifies)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E41 Appellation: P139 has alternative form   (P139.1 has type: E55 Type)
E15 Identifier Assignment: P142 used constituent (was used in)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E1 CRM Entity: P1 is identified by (identifies)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)

E83 Type Creation

Subclass of: E65 Creation,
Scope Note: This class comprises activities formally defining new types of items.
It is typically a rigorous scholarly or scientific process that ensures a type is exhaustively described and appropriately named. In some cases, particularly in archaeology and the life sciences, E83 Type Creation requires the identification of an exemplary specimen and the publication of the type definition in an appropriate scholarly forum. The activity of E83 Type Creation is central to research in the life sciences, where a type would be referred to as a "taxon, " the type description as a "protologue, " and the exemplary specimens as "orgininal element" or "holotype".
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by): E77 Persistent Item
P94 has created (was created by): E28 Conceptual Object
P135 created type (was created by): E55 Type
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P136 was based on (supported type creation): E1 CRM Entity   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E84 Information Carrier

Subclass of: E22 Man-Made Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises all instances of E22 Man-Made Object that are explicitly designed to act as persistent physical carriers for instances of E73 Information Object.
This allows a relationship to be asserted between an E19 Physical Object and its immaterial information contents. An E84 Information Carrier may or may not contain information, e.g., a diskette. Note that any E18 Physical Thing may carry information, such as an E34 Inscription. However, unless it was specifically designed for this purpose, it is not an Information Carrier. Therefore the property P128 carries (is carried by) applies to E18 Physical Thing in general.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P56 bears feature (is found on): E26 Physical Feature
P59 has section (is located on or within): E53 Place   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P65 shows visual item (is shown by): E36 Visual Item
P58 has section definition (defines section): E46 Section Definition
P46 is composed of (forms part of): E18 Physical Thing
P45 consists of (is incorporated in): E57 Material
P57 has number of parts: E60 Number
P128 carries (is carried by): E73 Information Object
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E10 Transfer of Custody)
P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)
P52 has current owner (is current owner of): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E8 Acquisition)   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P44 has condition (condition of): E3 Condition State   (short cut of: E14 Condition Assessment)
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P55 has current location (currently holds): E53 Place
short cut of: E9 Move)
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of): E53 Place
P62 depicts (is depicted by): E1 CRM Entity   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E4 Period: P8 took place on or within (witnessed)   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
E6 Destruction: P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E9 Move: P25 moved (moved by)
E11 Modification: P31 has modified (was modified by)
E14 Condition Assessment: P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E12 Production: P108 has produced (was produced by)
E79 Part Addition: P110 augmented (was augmented by)
E80 Part Removal: P112 diminished (was diminished by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E8 Acquisition: P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)
E10 Transfer of Custody: P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)
E18 Physical Thing: P46 is composed of (forms part of)
E79 Part Addition: P111 added (was added by)
E80 Part Removal: P113 removed (was removed by)

E85 Joining

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E49 Actor becoming a member of an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.
Typical scenarios include becoming a member of a social organisation, becoming employee of a company, marriage, the adoption of a child by a family and the inauguration of somebody into an official position.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E86 Leaving

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises the activities that result in an instance of E39 Actor to be disassociated from an instance of E74 Group. This class does not imply initiative by either party.
Typical scenarios include the termination of membership in a social organisation, ending the employment at a company, divorce, and the end of tenure of somebody in an official position.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E87 Curation Activity

Subclass of: E7 Activity,
Scope Note: This class comprises the activities that result in the continuity of management and the preservation and evolution of instances of E78 Collection, following an implicit or explicit curation plan.
It specializes the notion of activity into the curation of a collection and allows the history of curation to be recorded.
Items are accumulated and organized following criteria like subject, chronological period, material type, style of art etc. and can be added or removed from an E78 Collection for a specific purpose and/or audience. The initial aggregation of items of a collection is regarded as an instance of E12 Production Event while the activity of evolving, preserving and promoting a collection is regarded as an instance of E87 Curation Activity.
Examples Properties
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P17 was motivated by (motivated): E1 CRM Entity
P19 was intended use of (was made for): E71 Man-Made Thing   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of): E5 Event
P21 had general purpose (was purpose of): E55 Type
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P11 had participant (participated in): E39 Actor
P14 carried out by (performed): E39 Actor   (P14.1 in the role of: E55 Type)
P16 used specific object (was used for): E70 Thing   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P33 used specific technique (was used by): E29 Design or Procedure   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at): E77 Persistent Item
P15 was influenced by (influenced): E1 CRM Entity
P8 took place on or within (witnessed): E19 Physical Object   (short cut of: E46 Section Definition)
P7 took place at (witnessed): E53 Place
P4 has time-span (is time-span of): E52 Time-Span
P134 continued (was continued by): E7 Activity
P120 occurs before (occurs after): E2 Temporal Entity
P119 meets in time with (is met in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by): E2 Temporal Entity
P117 occurs during (includes): E2 Temporal Entity
P116 starts (is started by): E2 Temporal Entity
P115 finishes (is finished by): E2 Temporal Entity
P114 is equal in time to: E2 Temporal Entity
P10 falls within (contains): E4 Period
P9 consists of (forms part of): E4 Period
P132 overlaps with: E4 Period
P133 is separated from: E4 Period
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P32 used general technique (was technique of): E55 Type
P125 used object of type (was type of object used in): E55 Type
The entity is not referenced.
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E2 Temporal Entity: P120 occurs before (occurs after)
E2 Temporal Entity: P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P117 occurs during (includes)
E2 Temporal Entity: P116 starts (is started by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P115 finishes (is finished by)
E2 Temporal Entity: P114 is equal in time to
E4 Period: P10 falls within (contains)
E4 Period: P9 consists of (forms part of)
E4 Period: P132 overlaps with
E4 Period: P133 is separated from
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E7 Activity: P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E89 Propositional Object

Subclass of: E28 Conceptual Object,
Superclass of: E30 Right, E73 Information Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises immaterial items, including but not limited to stories, plots, procedural prescriptions, algorithms, laws of physics or images that are, or represent in some sense, sets of propositions about real or mental things and that are documented as single units or serve as topic of discourse.

This class also comprises items that are "about" something in the sense of a subject. In the wider sense, this class includes expressions of psychological value such as non-figural art and musical themes. However, conceptual items such as types and classes are not instances of E89 Propositional Object. This should not be confused with the definition of a type, which is indeed an instance of E89 Propositional Object.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P67 refers to (is referred to by): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P129 is about (is subject of): E1 CRM Entity   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is only referenced by itself.
E89 Propositional Object: P148 has component (is component of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

E90 Symbolic Object

Subclass of: E28 Conceptual Object, E72 Legal Object,
Superclass of: E41 Appellation, E73 Information Object,
Scope Note: This class comprises identifiable symbols and any aggregation of symbols, such as characters, identifiers, traffic signs, emblems, texts, data sets, images, musical scores, multimedia objects, computer program code or mathematical formulae that have an objectively recognizable structure and that are documented as single units.
It includes sets of signs of any nature, which may serve to designate something, or to communicate some propositional content.
An instance of E90 Symbolic Object does not depend on a specific physical carrier, which can include human memory, and it can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. An instance of E90 Symbolic Object may or may not have a specific meaning, for example an arbitrary character string.
Examples Properties
P102 has title (is title of): E35 Title   (P102.1 has type: E55 Type)
P1 is identified by (identifies): E41 Appellation
P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by): E55 Type   (P137.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
P2 has type (is type of): E55 Type
P105 right held by (has right on): E39 Actor   (short cut of: E30 Right)
P104 is subject to (applies to): E30 Right
P130 shows features of (features are also found on): E70 Thing   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
P3 has note: E62 String   (P3.1 has type: E55 Type)
P101 had as general use (was use of): E55 Type
P103 was intended for (was intention of): E55 Type
The entity is only referenced by itself.
E90 Symbolic Object: P106 is composed of (forms part of)
The entity inherits references:
E7 Activity: P16 used specific object (was used for)   (P16.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E7 Activity: P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity: P19 was intended use of (was made for)   (P19.1 mode of use: E55 Type)
E16 Measurement: P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment: P41 classified (was classified by)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing: P62 depicts (is depicted by)   (P62.1 mode of depiction: E55 Type)
E89 Propositional Object: P67 refers to (is referred to by)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E31 Document: P70 documents (is documented in)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E63 Beginning of Existence: P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence: P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
E65 Creation: P94 has created (was created by)
E81 Transformation: P123 resulted in (resulted from)
E81 Transformation: P124 transformed (was transformed by)
E89 Propositional Object: P129 is about (is subject of)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)
E70 Thing: P130 shows features of (features are also found on)   (P130.1 kind of similarity: E55 Type)
E83 Type Creation: P136 was based on (supported type creation)   (P136.1 in the taxonomic role: E55 Type)
E36 Visual Item: P138 represents (has representation)   (P67.1 has type: E55 Type)   (P138.1 mode of representation: E55 Type)
E5 Event: P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity: P15 was influenced by (influenced)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
E13 Attribute Assignment: P141 assigned (was assigned by)

Property List

P1 is identified by (identifies)

Domain: E1 CRM Entity,
Range: E41 Appellation,
Superproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)
E52 Time-Span.P78 is identified by (identifies)
E53 Place.P87 is identified by (identifies)
E71 Man-Made Thing.P102 has title (is title of)
E39 Actor.P131 is identified by (identifies)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the naming or identification of any real world item by a name or any other identifier.
This property is intended for identifiers in general use, which form part of the world the model intends to describe, and not merely for internal database identifiers which are specific to a technical system, unless these latter also have a more general use outside the technical context. This property includes in particular identification by mathematical expressions such as coordinate systems used for the identification of instances of E53 Place. The property does not reveal anything about when, where and by whom this identifier was used. A more detailed representation can be made using the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path through E15 Identifier Assignment.
Examples

P2 has type (is type of)

Domain: E1 CRM Entity,
Range: E55 Type,
Superproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows sub typing of CRM entities - a form of specialisation - through the use of a terminological hierarchy, or thesaurus.
The CRM is intended to focus on the high-level entities and relationships needed to describe data structures. Consequently, it does not specialise entities any further than is required for this immediate purpose. However, entities in the isA hierarchy of the CRM may by specialised into any number of sub entities, which can be defined in the E55 Type hierarchy. E51 Contact Point, for example, may be specialised into "e-mail address", "telephone number", "post office box", "URL" etc. none of which figures explicitly in the CRM hierarchy. Sub typing obviously requires consistency between the meaning of the terms assigned and the more general intent of the CRM entity in question.
Examples

P3 has note

Domain: E1 CRM Entity,
Range: E62 String,
Superproperty of: E52 Time-Span.P79 beginning is qualified by
E52 Time-Span.P80 end is qualified by
Quantification: one to many (0, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property is a container for all informal descriptions about an object that have not been expressed in terms of CRM constructs.
In particular it captures the characterisation of the item itself, its internal structures, appearance etc.
Like property P2 has type (is type of), this property is a consequence of the restricted focus of the CRM. The aim is not to capture, in a structured form, everything that can be said about an item; indeed, the CRM formalism is not regarded as sufficient to express everything that can be said. Good practice requires use of distinct note fields for different aspects of a characterisation. The P3.1 has type property of P3 has note allows differentiation of specific notes, e.g. "construction", "decoration" etc.
An item may have many notes, but a note is attached to a specific item.
Examples

P3.1 has type

Domain: P3 has note,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P4 has time-span (is time-span of)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E52 Time-Span,
Quantification: many to one, necessary, dependent (1, 1: 1, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the temporal confinement of an instance of an E2 Temporal Entity.
The related E52 Time-Span is understood as the real Time-Span during which the phenomena were active, which make up the temporal entity instance. It does not convey any other meaning than a positioning on the "time-line" of chronology. The Time-Span in turn is approximated by a set of dates (E61 Time Primitive). A temporal entity can have in reality only one Time-Span, but there may exist alternative opinions about it, which we would express by assigning multiple Time-Spans. Related temporal entities may share a Time-Span. Time-Spans may have completely unknown dates but other descriptions by which we can infer knowledge.
Examples

P5 consists of (forms part of)

Domain: E3 Condition State,
Range: E3 Condition State,
Quantification: one to many (0, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property describes the decomposition of an E3 Condition State into discrete, subsidiary states.
It is assumed that the sub-states into which the condition state is analysed form a logical whole - although the entire story may not be completely known - and that the sub-states are in fact constitutive of the general condition state. For example, a general condition state of "in ruins" may be decomposed into the individual stages of decay.
Examples

P7 took place at (witnessed)

Domain: E4 Period,
Range: E53 Place,
Superproperty of: E9 Move.P26 moved to (was destination of)
E9 Move.P27 moved from (was origin of)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the spatial location of an instance of E4 Period.
The related E53 Place should be seen as an approximation of the geographical area within which the phenomena that characterise the period in question occurred. P7took place at (witnessed) does not convey any meaning other than spatial positioning (generally on the surface of the earth). For example, the period "Révolution française" can be said to have taken place in "France", the "Victorian" period, may be said to have taken place in "Britain" and its colonies, as well as other parts of Europe and north America.
A period can take place at multiple locations.
Examples

P8 took place on or within (witnessed)

Domain: E4 Period,
Range: E19 Physical Object,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the location of an instance of E4 Period with respect to an E19 Physical Object.
P8 took place on or within (witnessed) is a short-cut of a path defining a E53 Place with respect to the geometry of an object. cf. E46 Section Definition.
This property is in effect a special case of P7 took place at. It describes a period that can be located with respect to the space defined by an E19 Physical Object such as a ship or a building. The precise geographical location of the object during the period in question may be unknown or unimportant.
For example, the French and German armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed in the same railway carriage as the armistice of 11 November 1918.
Examples

P9 consists of (forms part of)

Domain: E4 Period,
Range: E4 Period,
Quantification: one to many, (0, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property describes the decomposition of an instance of E4 Period into discrete, subsidiary periods.
The sub-periods into which the period is decomposed form a logical whole - although the entire picture may not be completely known - and the sub-periods are constitutive of the general period.
Examples

P10 falls within (contains)

Domain: E4 Period,
Range: E4 Period,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes an instance of E4 Period, which falls within the E53 Place and E52 Time-Span of another.
The difference with P9 consists of (forms part of) is subtle. Unlike P9 consists of (forms part of), P10 falls within (contains) does not imply any logical connection between the two periods and it may refer to a period of a completely different type.
Examples

P11 had participant (participated in)

Domain: E5 Event,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Superproperty of: E7 Activity.P14 carried out by (performed)
E67 Birth.P96 by mother (gave birth)
E68 Dissolution.P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
E85 Joining.P143 joined (was joined by)
E85 Joining.P144 joined with (gained member by)
E86 Leaving.P145 separated (left by)
E86 Leaving.P146 separated from (lost member by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the active or passive participation of instances of E39 Actors in an E5 Event.
It connects the life-line of the related E39 Actor with the E53 Place and E50 Date of the event. The property implies that the Actor was involved in the event but does not imply any causal relationship. The subject of a portrait can be said to have participated in the creation of the portrait.
Examples

P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)

Domain: E5 Event,
Range: E77 Persistent Item,
Superproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
E7 Activity.P16 used specific object (was used for)
E9 Move.P25 moved (moved by)
E11 Modification.P31 has modified (was modified by)
E63 Beginning of Existence.P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
E64 End of Existence.P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the active or passive presence of an E77 Persistent Item in an E5 Event without implying any specific role.
It connects the history of a thing with the E53 Place and E50 Date of an event. For example, an object may be the desk, now in a museum on which a treaty was signed. The presence of an immaterial thing implies the presence of at least one of its carriers.
Examples

P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)

Domain: E6 Destruction,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Subproperty of: E64 End of Existence.P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary (1, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property allows specific instances of E18 Physical Thing that have been destroyed to be related to a destruction event.
Destruction implies the end of an item's life as a subject of cultural documentation - the physical matter of which the item was composed may in fact continue to exist. A destruction event may be contiguous with a Production that brings into existence a derived object composed partly of matter from the destroyed object.
Examples

P14 carried out by (performed)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
Superproperty of: E8 Acquisition.P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)
E8 Acquisition.P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)
E10 Transfer of Custody.P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)
E10 Transfer of Custody.P29 custody received by (received custody through)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the active participation of an E39 Actor in an E7 Activity.
It implies causal or legal responsibility. The P14.1 in the role of property of the property allows the nature of an Actor's participation to be specified.
Examples

P14.1 in the role of

Domain: P14 carried out by (performed),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P15 was influenced by (influenced)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Superproperty of: E7 Activity.P16 used specific object (was used for)
E7 Activity.P17 was motivated by (motivated)
E7 Activity.P134 continued (was continued by)
E83 Type Creation.P136 was based on (supported type creation)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This is a high level property, which captures the relationship between an E7 Activity and anything that may have had some bearing upon it.
The property has more specific sub properties.
Examples

P16 used specific object (was used for)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E70 Thing,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
E7 Activity.P15 was influenced by (influenced)
Superproperty of: E7 Activity.P33 used specific technique (was used by)
E15 Identifier Assignment.P142 used constituent (was used in)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the use of material or immaterial things in a way essential to the performance or the outcome of an E7 Activity.
This property typically applies to tools, instruments, moulds, raw materials and items embedded in a product. It implies that the presence of the object in question was a necessary condition for the action. For example, the activity of writing this text required the use of a computer. An immaterial thing can be used if at least one of its carriers is present. For example, the software tools on a computer.
Another example is the use of a particular name by a particular group of people over some span to identify a thing, such as a settlement. In this case, the physical carriers of this name are at least the people understanding its use.
Examples

P16.1 mode of use

Domain: P16 used specific object (was used for),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P17 was motivated by (motivated)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P15 was influenced by (influenced)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes an item or items that are regarded as a reason for carrying out the E7 Activity.
For example, the discovery of a large hoard of treasure may call for a celebration, an order from head quarters can start a military manoeuvre.
Examples

P19 was intended use of (was made for)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E71 Man-Made Thing,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property relates an E7 Activity with objects created specifically for use in the activity.
This is distinct from the intended use of an item in some general type of activity such as the book of common prayer which was intended for use in Church of England services (see P101 had as general use (was use of)).
Examples

P19.1 mode of use

Domain: P19 was intended use of (was made for),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E5 Event,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the relationship between a preparatory activity and the event it is intended to be preparation for.

This includes activities, orders and other organisational actions, taken in preparation for other activities or events.
P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) implies that an activity succeeded in achieving its aim. If it does not succeed, such as the setting of a trap that did not catch anything, one may document the unrealized intention using P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)E55 Type and/or P33 used specific technique (was used by) E29 Design or Procedure.
Examples

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes an intentional relationship between an E7 Activity and some general goal or purpose.
This may involve activities intended as preparation for some type of activity or event. P21had general purpose (was purpose of) differs from P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) in that no occurrence of an event is implied as the purpose.
Examples

P22 transferred title to (acquired title through)

Domain: E8 Acquisition,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P14 carried out by (performed)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor that acquires the legal ownership of an object as a result of an E8 Acquisition.
The property will typically describe an Actor purchasing or otherwise acquiring an object from another Actor. However, title may also be acquired, without any corresponding loss of title by another Actor, through legal fieldwork such as hunting, shooting or fishing.

In reality the title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.
Examples

P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through)

Domain: E8 Acquisition,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P14 carried out by (performed)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who relinquish legal ownership as the result of an E8 Acquisition.
The property will typically be used to describe a person donating or selling an object to a museum. In reality title is either transferred to or from someone, or both.
Examples

P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through)

Domain: E8 Acquisition,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Things or things involved in an E8 Acquisition.
In reality, an acquisition must refer to at least one transferred item.
Examples

P25 moved (moved by)

Domain: E9 Move,
Range: E19 Physical Object,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E19 Physical Object that is moved during a move event.
The property implies the object's passive participation. For example, Monet's painting "Impression sunrise" was moved for the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874.
In reality, a move must concern at least one object.
Examples

P26 moved to (was destination of)

Domain: E9 Move,
Range: E53 Place,
Subproperty of: E4 Period.P7 took place at (witnessed)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the destination of a E9 Move.
A move will be linked to a destination, such as the move of an artefact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many terminal instances of E53 Places. In this case the move describes a distribution of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin, route and destination.
Examples

P27 moved from (was origin of)

Domain: E9 Move,
Range: E53 Place,
Subproperty of: E4 Period.P7 took place at (witnessed)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the starting E53 Place of an E9 Move.
A move will be linked to an origin, such as the move of an artefact from storage to display. A move may be linked to many origins. In this case the move describes the picking up of a set of objects. The area of the move includes the origin, route and destination.
Examples

P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through)

Domain: E10 Transfer of Custody,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P14 carried out by (performed)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who surrender custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.
The property will typically describe an Actor surrendering custody of an object when it is handed over to someone else's care. On occasion, physical custody may be surrendered involuntarily - through accident, loss or theft.
In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both.
Examples

P29 custody received by (received custody through)

Domain: E10 Transfer of Custody,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P14 carried out by (performed)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who receive custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.
The property will typically describe Actors receiving custody of an object when it is handed over from another Actor's care. On occasion, physical custody may be received involuntarily or illegally - through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.
In reality, custody is either transferred to someone or from someone, or both.
Examples

P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through)

Domain: E10 Transfer of Custody,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an item or items of E18 Physical Thing concerned in an E10 Transfer of Custody activity.
The property will typically describe the object that is handed over by an E39 Actor to another Actor's custody. On occasion, physical custody may be transferred involuntarily or illegally - through accident, unsolicited donation, or theft.
Examples

P31 has modified (was modified by)

Domain: E11 Modification,
Range: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Superproperty of: E12 Production.P108 has produced (was produced by)
E79 Part Addition.P110 augmented (was augmented by)
E80 Part Removal.P112 diminished (was diminished by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing modified in an E11 Modification.
If a modification is applied to a non-man-made object, it is regarded as an E22 Man-Made Object from that time onwards.
Examples

P32 used general technique (was technique of)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E55 Type,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the technique that was employed in an act of modification.
These techniques should be drawn from an external E55 Type hierarchy of consistent terminology of general techniques such as embroidery, oil-painting, etc. Specific techniques may be further described as instances of E29 Design or Procedure.
Examples

P33 used specific technique (was used by)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E29 Design or Procedure,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P16 used specific object (was used for)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies a specific E29 Design or Procedure used in an E11 Modification.
Modification may be carried out in order to ensure the preservation of an object and not just as part of the creative process.
The property differs from P32 used general technique (was technique of) in that the E29 Design or Procedure referred to is specific and documented rather than simply being a term in the E55 Type hierarchy. Typical examples would include intervention plans for conservation.
Examples

P34 concerned (was assessed by)

Domain: E14 Condition Assessment,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing that was assessed during an E14 Condition Assessment activity.
Conditions may be assessed either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the E18 Physical Thing does not need to be present or extant.
Examples

P35 has identified (was identified by)

Domain: E14 Condition Assessment,
Range: E3 Condition State,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P141 assigned (was assigned by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E3 Condition State that was observed in an E14 Condition Assessment activity.
Examples

P37 assigned (was assigned by)

Domain: E15 Identifier Assignment,
Range: E42 Identifier,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P141 assigned (was assigned by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the identifier that was assigned to an item in an Identifier Assignment activity.
The same identifier may be assigned on more than one occasion.
An Identifier might be created prior to an assignment.
Examples

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)

Domain: E15 Identifier Assignment,
Range: E42 Identifier,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P141 assigned (was assigned by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the identifier that was deassigned from an instance of E1 CRM Entity.
Deassignment of an identifier may be necessary when an item is taken out of an inventory, a new numbering system is introduced or items are merged or split up.
The same identifier may be deassigned on more than one occasion.
Examples

P39 measured (was measured by)

Domain: E16 Measurement,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property associates an instance of E16 Measurement with the instance of E1 CRM Entity to which it applied. An instance of E1 CRM Entity may be measured more than once. Material and immaterial things and processes may be measured, e.g. the number of words in a text, or the duration of an event.
Examples

P40 observed dimension (was observed in)

Domain: E16 Measurement,
Range: E54 Dimension,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P141 assigned (was assigned by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the dimension that was observed in an E16 Measurement Event.
E54 Dimension can be any quantifiable aspect of E70 Thing. Weight, image colour depth and monetary value are dimensions in this sense. One measurement activity may determine more than one dimension of one object.
Dimensions may be determined either by direct observation or using recorded evidence. In the latter case the measured Thing does not need to be present or extant.
Even though knowledge of the value of a dimension requires measurement, the dimension may be an object of discourse prior to, or even without, any measurement being made.
Examples

P41 classified (was classified by)

Domain: E17 Type Assignment,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the item to which a type was assigned in an E17 Type Assignment activity.
Any instance of a CRM entity may be assigned a type through type assignment. Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41 classified (was classified), E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned (was assigned by) to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of).
Examples

P42 assigned (was assigned by)

Domain: E17 Type Assignment,
Range: E55 Type,
Subproperty of: E13 Attribute Assignment.P141 assigned (was assigned by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the type that was assigned to an entity by an E17 Type Assignment activity.
Type assignment events allow a more detailed path from E1 CRM Entity through P41 classified (was classified by), E17 Type Assignment, P42 assigned (was assigned by) to E55 Type for assigning types to objects compared to the shortcut offered by P2 has type (is type of).
For example, a fragment of an antique vessel could be assigned the type "attic red figured belly handled amphora" by expert A. The same fragment could be assigned the type "shoulder handled amphora" by expert B.
A Type may be intellectually constructed independent from assigning an instance of it.
Examples

P43 has dimension (is dimension of)

Domain: E70 Thing,
Range: E54 Dimension,
Quantification: one to many, dependent (0, n: 1.1)
Scope Note: This property records a E54 Dimension of some E70 Thing.
It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E70 Thing through P39 measured (was measured by), E16 Measurement P40 observed dimension (was observed in) to E54 Dimension. It offers no information about how and when an E54 Dimension was established, nor by whom.
An instance of E54 Dimension is specific to an instance of E70 Thing.
Examples

P44 has condition (condition of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E3 Condition State,
Quantification: one to many, dependent (0, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property records an E3 Condition State for some E18 Physical Thing.
It is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P34 concerned (was assessed by), E14 Condition Assessment P35 has identified (identified by) to E3 Condition State. It offers no information about how and when the E3 Condition State was established, nor by whom.
An instance of Condition State is specific to an instance of Physical Thing.
Examples

P45 consists of (is incorporated in)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E57 Material,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the instances of E57 Materials of which an instance of E18 Physical Thing is composed.
All physical things consist of physical materials. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) allows the different Materials to be recorded. P45 consists of (is incorporated in) refers here to observed Material as opposed to the consumed raw material.
A Material, such as a theoretical alloy, may not have any physical instances.
Examples

P46 is composed of (forms part of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Superproperty of: E19 Physical Object.P56 bears feature (is found on)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows instances of E18 Physical Thing to be analysed into component elements.
Component elements, since they are themselves instances of E18 Physical Thing, may be further analysed into sub-components, thereby creating a hierarchy of part decomposition. An instance of E18 Physical Thing may be shared between multiple wholes, for example two buildings may share a common wall.
This property is intended to describe specific components that are individually documented, rather than general aspects. Overall descriptions of the structure of an instance of E18 Physical Thing are captured by the P3 has note property.
The instances of E57 Materials of which an item of E18 Physical Thing is composed should be documented using P45 consists of (is incorporated in).
Examples

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of)

Domain: E1 CRM Entity,
Range: E42 Identifier,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P1 is identified by (identifies)
Quantification: many to one (0, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the preferred E42 Identifier that was used to identify an instance of E1 CRM Entity at the time this property was recorded.
More than one preferred identifier may have been assigned to an item over time.
Use of this property requires an external mechanism for assigning temporal validity to the respective CRM instance.
P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of), is a shortcut for the path from E1 CRM Entity through P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by), E15 Identifier Assignment, P37 assigned (was assigned by) to E42 Identifier. The fact that an identifier is a preferred one for an organisation can be better expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment using the P2 has type property.
Examples

P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E39 Actor,
Superproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who have or have had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time.
The distinction with P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is that P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) leaves open the question as to whether the specified keepers are current.
P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) or P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor.
Examples

P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who had custody of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at the time this property was recorded.
P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through), E10 Transfer of Custody, P29 custody received by (received custody through) to E39 Actor.
Examples

P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E39 Actor,
Superproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor that is or has been the legal owner (i.e. title holder) of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at some time.
The distinction with P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is that P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) does not indicate whether the specified owners are current. P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition, P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through), or P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor.
Examples

P52 has current owner (is current owner of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of)
E72 Legal Object.P105 right held by (has right on)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E21 Person, E74 Group or E40 Legal Body that was the owner of an instance of E18 Physical Thing at the time this property was recorded.
P52 has current owner (is current owner of) is a shortcut for the more detailed path from E18 Physical Thing through P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through), E8 Acquisition, P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) to E39 Actor, if and only if this acquisition event is the most recent.
Examples

P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E53 Place,
Superproperty of: E19 Physical Object.P55 has current location (currently holds)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows an instance of E53 Place to be associated as the former or current location of an instance of E18 Physical Thing.
In the case of E19 Physical Objects, the property does not allow any indication of the Time-Span during which the Physical Object was located at this Place, nor if this is the current location.
In the case of immobile objects, the Place would normally correspond to the Place of creation.
P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move, P26 moved to (was destination of) or P27 moved from (was origin of) to E53 Place.
Examples

P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of)

Domain: E19 Physical Object,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: many to one (0, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the foreseen permanent location of an instance of E19 Physical Object at the time this property was recorded.
P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) is similar to P55 has current location (currently holds). However, it indicates the E53 Place currently reserved for an object, such as the permanent storage location or a permanent exhibit location. The object may be temporarily removed from the permanent location, for example when used in temporary exhibitions or loaned to another institution. The object may never actually be located at its permanent location.
Examples

P55 has current location (currently holds)

Domain: E19 Physical Object,
Range: E53 Place,
Subproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of)
Quantification: many to one (0, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property records the location of an E19 Physical Object at the time the property was recorded.
This property is a specialisation of P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of). It indicates that the E53 Place associated with the E19 Physical Object is the current location of the object. The property does not allow any indication of how long the Object has been at the current location.
P55 has current location (currently holds) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P25 moved (moved by), E9 Move P26 moved to (was destination of) to E53 Place if and only if this Move is the most recent.
Examples

P56 bears feature (is found on)

Domain: E19 Physical Object,
Range: E26 Physical Feature,
Subproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P46 is composed of (forms part of)
Quantification: one to many, dependent (0, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property describes a E26 Physical Feature found on a E19 Physical Object It does not specify the location of the feature on the object.
P56 bears feature (is found on) is a shortcut. A more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E19 Physical Object through P59 has section (is located on or within), E53 Place, P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) to E26 Physical Feature.
A Physical Feature can only exist on one object. One object may bear more than one Physical Feature. An E27 Site should be considered as an E26 Physical Feature on the surface of the Earth.
Examples

P57 has number of parts

Domain: E19 Physical Object,
Range: E60 Number,
Quantification: many to one (0, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property documents the E60 Number of parts of which an instance of E19 Physical Object is composed.
This may be used as a method of checking inventory counts with regard to aggregate or collective objects. What constitutes a part or component depends on the context and requirements of the documentation. Normally, the parts documented in this way would not be considered as worthy of individual attention.
For a more complete description, objects may be decomposed into their components and constituents using P46 is composed of (forms parts of) and P45 consists of (is incorporated in). This allows each element to be described individually.
Examples

P58 has section definition (defines section)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E46 Section Definition,
Quantification: one to many, dependent, (0, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property links an area (section) named by a E46 Section Definition to the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it is found.
The CRM handles sections as locations (instances of E53 Place) within or on E18 Physical Thing that are identified by E46 Section Definitions. Sections need not be discrete and separable components or parts of an object.
This is part of a more developed path from E18 Physical Thing through P58, E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) that allows a more precise definition of a location found on an object than the shortcut P59 has section (is located on or within).
A particular instance of a Section Definition only applies to one instance of Physical Thing.
Examples

P59 has section (is located on or within)

Domain: E18 Physical Thing,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: one to many (0, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property links an area to the instance of E18 Physical Thing upon which it is found.
It is typically used when a named E46 Section Definition is not appropriate.
E18 Physical Thing may be subdivided into arbitrary regions.
P59 has section (is located on or within) is a shortcut. If the E53 Place is identified by a Section Definition, a more detailed representation can make use of the fully developed (i.e. indirect) path from E18 Physical Thing through P58 has section definition (defines section), E46 Section Definition, P87 is identified by (identifies) to E53 Place. A Place can only be located on or within one Physical Object.
Examples

P62 depicts (is depicted by)

Domain: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies something that is depicted by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1CRM Entity. P62.1 mode of depiction allows the nature of the depiction to be refined.
Examples

P62.1 mode of depiction

Domain: P62 depicts (is depicted by),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P65 shows visual item (is shown by)

Domain: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Range: E36 Visual Item,
Subproperty of: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.P128 carries (is carried by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property documents an E36 Visual Item shown by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
This property is similar to P62 depicts (is depicted by) in that it associates an item of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing with a visual representation. However, P65 shows visual item (is shown by) differs from the P62 depicts (is depicted by) property in that it makes no claims about what the E36 Visual Item is deemed to represent. E36 Visual Item identifies a recognisable image or visual symbol, regardless of what this image may or may not represent.
For example, all recent British coins bear a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, a fact that is correctly documented using P62 depicts (is depicted by). Different portraits have been used at different periods, however. P65 shows visual item (is shown by) can be used to refer to a particular portrait.
P65 shows visual item (is shown by) may also be used for Visual Items such as signs, marks and symbols, for example the 'Maltese Cross' or the 'copyright symbol' that have no particular representational content.
This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity which is shortcut by, P62 depicts (is depicted by).
Examples

P67 refers to (is referred to by)

Domain: E89 Propositional Object,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Superproperty of: E31 Document.P70 documents (is documented in)
E32 Authority Document.P71 lists (is listed in)
E89 Propositional Object.P129 is about (is subject of)
E36 Visual Item.P138 represents (has representation)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property documents that an E89 Propositional Object makes a statement about an instance of E1 CRM Entity. P67 refers to (is referred to by) has the P67.1 has type link to an instance of E55 Type. This is intended to allow a more detailed description of the type of reference. This differs from P129 is about (is subject of), which describes the primary subject or subjects of the E89 Propositional Object.
Examples

P67.1 has type

Domain: P67 refers to (is referred to by),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by)

Domain: E29 Design or Procedure,
Range: E57 Material,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an E57 Material foreseeen to be used by an E29 Design or Procedure.
E29 Designs and procedures commonly foresee the use of particular E57 Materials. The fabrication of adobe bricks, for example, requires straw, clay and water. This property enables this to be documented.
This property is not intended for the documentation of E57 Materials that were used on a particular occasion when an instance of E29 Design or Procedure was executed.
Examples

P69 is associated with

Domain: E29 Design or Procedure,
Range: E29 Design or Procedure,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This symmetric property describes the association of an E29 Design or Procedure with other Designs or Procedures.
Any instance of E29 Design or Procedure may be associated with other designs or procedures. The nature of the association may be whole-part, sequence, prerequisite etc. The property is assumed to be entirely reciprocal.
Examples

P69.1 has type

Domain: P69 is associated with,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P70 documents (is documented in)

Domain: E31 Document,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E89 Propositional Object.P67 refers to (is referred to by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the CRM Entities documented by instances of E31 Document.
Documents may describe any conceivable entity, hence the link to the highest-level entity in the CRM hierarchy. This property is intended for cases where a reference is regarded as being of a documentary character, in the scholarly or scientific sense.
Examples

P71 lists (is listed in)

Domain: E32 Authority Document,
Range: E55 Type,
Subproperty of: E89 Propositional Object.P67 refers to (is referred to by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property documents a source E32 Authority Document for an instance of an E55 Type.
Examples

P72 has language (is language of)

Domain: E33 Linguistic Object,
Range: E56 Language,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the E56 Language of an E33 Linguistic Object.
Linguistic Objects are composed in one or more human Languages. This property allows these languages to be documented.
Examples

P73 has translation (is translation of)

Domain: E33 Linguistic Object,
Range: E33 Linguistic Object,
Subproperty of: E70 Thing.P130 shows features of (features are also found on)
Quantification: one to many (0, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property describes the source and target of instances of E33Linguistic Object involved in a translation.
When a Linguistic Object is translated into a new language it becomes a new Linguistic Object, despite being conceptually similar to the source object.
Examples

P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of)

Domain: E39 Actor,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the current or former E53 Place of residence of an E39 Actor.
The residence may be either the Place where the Actor resides, or a legally registered address of any kind.
Examples

P75 possesses (is possessed by)

Domain: E39 Actor,
Range: E30 Right,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies former or current instances of E30 Rights held by an E39 Actor.
Examples

P76 has contact point (provides access to)

Domain: E39 Actor,
Range: E51 Contact Point,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an E51 Contact Point of any type that provides access to an E39 Actor by any communication method, such as e-mail or fax.
Examples

P78 is identified by (identifies)

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E49 Time Appellation,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P1 is identified by (identifies)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an E52 Time-Span using an E49Time Appellation.
Examples

P79 beginning is qualified by

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E62 String,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P3 has note
Quantification: many to one (0, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property qualifies the beginning of an E52 Time-Span in some way.
The nature of the qualification may be certainty, precision, source etc.
Examples

P80 end is qualified by

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E62 String,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P3 has note
Quantification: many to one (0, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property qualifies the end of an E52 Time-Span in some way.
The nature of the qualification may be certainty, precision, source etc.
Examples

P81 ongoing throughout

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E61 Time Primitive,
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the minimum period of time covered by an E52 Time-Span.
Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span's minimum temporal extent (i.e. it's inner boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed.
Examples

P82 at some time within

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E61 Time Primitive,
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the maximum period of time within which an E52 Time-Span falls.
Since Time-Spans may not have precisely known temporal extents, the CRM supports statements about the minimum and maximum temporal extents of Time-Spans. This property allows a Time-Span's maximum temporal extent (i.e. it's outer boundary) to be assigned an E61 Time Primitive value. Time Primitives are treated by the CRM as application or system specific date intervals, and are not further analysed.
Examples

P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of)

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E54 Dimension,
Quantification: one to one (1, 1: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property describes the minimum length of time covered by an E52 Time-Span.
It allows an E52 Time-Span to be associated with an E54 Dimension representing it's minimum duration (i.e. it's inner boundary) independent from the actual beginning and end.
Examples

P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of)

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E54 Dimension,
Quantification: one to one (1, 1: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property describes the maximum length of time covered by an E52 Time-Span.
It allows an E52 Time-Span to be associated with an E54 Dimension representing it's maximum duration (i.e. it's outer boundary) independent from the actual beginning and end.
Examples

P86 falls within (contains)

Domain: E52 Time-Span,
Range: E52 Time-Span,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the inclusion relationship between two instances of E52 Time-Span.
This property supports the notion that a Time-Span's temporal extent falls within the temporal extent of another Time-Span. It addresses temporal containment only, and no contextual link between the two instances of Time-Span is implied.
Examples

P87 is identified by (identifies)

Domain: E53 Place,
Range: E44 Place Appellation,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P1 is identified by (identifies)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an E53 Place using an E44 Place Appellation.
Examples of Place Appellations used to identify Places include instances of E48 Place Name, addresses, E47 Spatial Coordinates etc.
Examples

P88 consists of (forms part of)

Domain: E53 Place,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an E53 Place that forms part of another Place.
It supports the notion that a Place can be subdivided into one or more constituent parts. It implies both spatial and contextual containment relationships between the two Places.
Examples

P89 falls within (contains)

Domain: E53 Place,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the instances of E53 Places that fall within the area covered by another Place.
It addresses spatial containment only, and no 'whole-part' relationship between the two places is implied.
Examples

P90 has value

Domain: E54 Dimension,
Range: E60 Number,
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows an E54 Dimension to be approximated by an E60 Number primitive.
Examples

P91 has unit (is unit of)

Domain: E54 Dimension,
Range: E58 Measurement Unit,
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property shows the type of unit an E54 Dimension was expressed in.
Examples

P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)

Domain: E63 Beginning of Existence,
Range: E77 Persistent Item,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Superproperty of: E65 Creation.P94 has created (was created by)
E66 Formation.P95 has formed (was formed by)
E67 Birth.P98 brought into life (was born)
E12 Production.P108 has produced (was produced by)
E81 Transformation.P123 resulted in (resulted from)
Quantification: one to many, necessary, dependent (1, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property allows an E63 Beginning of Existence event to be linked to the E77 Persistent Item brought into existence by it.
It allows a "start" to be attached to any Persistent Item being documented i.e. E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation, E51 Contact Point and E55 Type.
Examples

P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)

Domain: E64 End of Existence,
Range: E77 Persistent Item,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at)
Superproperty of: E6 Destruction.P13 destroyed (was destroyed by)
E68 Dissolution.P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)
E69 Death.P100 was death of (died in)
E81 Transformation.P124 transformed (was transformed by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary (1, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property allows an E64 End of Existence event to be linked to the E77 Persistent Item taken out of existence by it.
In the case of immaterial things, the E64 End of Existence is considered to take place with the destruction of the last physical carrier.
This allows an "end" to be attached to any Persistent Item being documented i.e. E70 Thing, E72 Legal Object, E39 Actor, E41 Appellation, E51 Contact Point and E55 Type. For many Persistent Items we know the maximum life-span and can infer, that they must have ended to exist. We assume in that case an End of Existence, which may be as unnoticeable as forgetting the secret knowledge by the last representative of some indigenous nation.
Examples

P94 has created (was created by)

Domain: E65 Creation,
Range: E28 Conceptual Object,
Subproperty of: E63 Beginning of Existence.P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
Superproperty of: E83 Type Creation.P135 created type (was created by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary, dependent (1, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property allows a conceptual E65 Creation to be linked to the E28 Conceptual Object created by it.
It represents the act of conceiving the intellectual content of the E28 Conceptual Object. It does not represent the act of creating the first physical carrier of the E28 Conceptual Object. As an example, this is the composition of a poem, not its commitment to paper.
Examples

P95 has formed (was formed by)

Domain: E66 Formation,
Range: E74 Group,
Subproperty of: E63 Beginning of Existence.P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary, dependent (1, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property links the founding or E66 Formation for an E74 Group with the Group itself.
Examples

P96 by mother (gave birth)

Domain: E67 Birth,
Range: E21 Person,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
Quantification: many to one, necessary (1, 1: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property links an E67 Birth event to an E21 Person as a participant in the role of birth-giving mother.
Note that biological fathers are not necessarily participants in the Birth (see P97 from father (was father for)). The Person being born is linked to the Birth with the property P98 brought into life (was born). This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions. This is a sub-property of P11 had participant (participated in).
Examples

P97 from father (was father for)

Domain: E67 Birth,
Range: E21 Person,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property links an E67 Birth event to an E21 Person in the role of biological father.
Note that biological fathers are not seen as necessary participants in the Birth, whereas birth-giving mothers are (see P96 by mother (gave birth)). The Person being born is linked to the Birth with the property P98 brought into life (was born).
This is not intended for use with general natural history material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions.
A Birth event is normally (but not always) associated with one biological father.
Examples

P98 brought into life (was born)

Domain: E67 Birth,
Range: E21 Person,
Subproperty of: E63 Beginning of Existence.P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
Quantification: one to many, dependent (0, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property links an E67Birth event to an E21 Person in the role of offspring.
Twins, triplets etc. are brought into life by the same Birth event. This is not intended for use with general Natural History material, only people. There is no explicit method for modelling conception and gestation except by using extensions.
Examples

P99 dissolved (was dissolved by)

Domain: E68 Dissolution,
Range: E74 Group,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
E64 End of Existence.P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property links the disbanding or E68 Dissolution of an E74 Group to the Group itself.
Examples

P100 was death of (died in)

Domain: E69 Death,
Range: E21 Person,
Subproperty of: E64 End of Existence.P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property links an E69 Death event to the E21 Person that died.
A Death event may involve multiple people, for example in the case of a battle or disaster.
This is not intended for use with general Natural History material, only people.
Examples

P101 had as general use (was use of)

Domain: E70 Thing,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property links an instance of E70 Thing to an E55 Type of usage.
It allows the generic link between things, both physical and immaterial, to methods and techniques of use. Thus it can be asserted that a baseball bat had a general use for sport and a specific use for threatening people during the Great Train Robbery.
Examples

P102 has title (is title of)

Domain: E71 Man-Made Thing,
Range: E35 Title,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P1 is identified by (identifies)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property describes the E35 Title applied to an instance of E71 Man-Made Thing. The E55 Type of Title is assigned in a sub property.
The P102.1 has type property of the P102 has title (is title of) property enables the relationship between the Title and the thing to be further clarified, for example, if the Title was a given Title, a supplied Title etc.
It allows any man-made material or immaterial thing to be given a Title. It is possible to imagine a Title being created without a specific object in mind.
Examples

P102.1 has type

Domain: P102 has title (is title of),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P103 was intended for (was intention of)

Domain: E71 Man-Made Thing,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property links an instance of E71 Man-Made Thing to an E55 Type of usage.
It creates a property between specific man-made things, both physical and immaterial, to Types of intended methods and techniques of use. Note: A link between specific man-made things and a specific use activity should be expressed using P19 was intended use of (was made for).
Examples

P104 is subject to (applies to)

Domain: E72 Legal Object,
Range: E30 Right,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property links a particular E72 Legal Object to the instances of E30 Right to which it is subject.
The Right is held by an E39 Actor as described by P75 possesses (is possessed by).
Examples

P105 right held by (has right on)

Domain: E72 Legal Object,
Range: E39 Actor,
Superproperty of: E18 Physical Thing.P52 has current owner (is current owner of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor who holds the instances of E30 Right to an E72 Legal Object.
It is a superproperty of P52 has current owner (is current owner of) because ownership is a right that is held on the owned object.
P105 right held by (has right on) is a shortcut of the fully developed path from E72 Legal Object through P104 is subject to (applies to), E30 Right, P75 possesses (is possessed by) to E39 Actor.
Examples

P106 is composed of (forms part of)

Domain: E90 Symbolic Object,
Range: E90 Symbolic Object,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property associates an instance of E90 Symbolic Object with a part of it that is by itself an instance of E90 Symbolic Object, such as fragments of texts or clippings from an image.
Examples

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of)

Domain: E74 Group,
Range: E39 Actor,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property relates an E39 Actor to the E74 Group of which he or she is a member.
Groups, Legal Bodies and Persons, may all be members of Groups. A Group necessarily consists of more than one member.
This property is a shortcut of the more fully developed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor
The property P107.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.
Examples

P108 has produced (was produced by)

Domain: E12 Production,
Range: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Subproperty of: E11 Modification.P31 has modified (was modified by)
E63 Beginning of Existence.P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary, dependent (1, n: 1, 1)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that came into existence as a result of an E12 Production.
The identity of an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing is not defined by its matter, but by its existence as a subject of documentation. An E12 Production can result in the creation of multiple instances of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
Examples

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of)

Domain: E78 Collection,
Range: E39 Actor,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E39 Actor or Actors who assume or have assumed overall curatorial responsibility for an E78 Collection.
This property is effectively a short-cut. It does not allow a history of curation to be recorded. This would require use of an Event assigning responsibility for a Collection to a curator.
Examples

P110 augmented (was augmented by)

Domain: E79 Part Addition,
Range: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Subproperty of: E11 Modification.P31 has modified (was modified by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that is added to (augmented) in an E79 Part Addition.
Although a Part Addition event normally concerns only one item of Physical Man-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be added to (augmented). For example, the artist Jackson Pollock trailing paint onto multiple canvasses.
Examples

P111 added (was added by)

Domain: E79 Part Addition,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing that is added during an E79 Part Addition activity
Examples

P112 diminished (was diminished by)

Domain: E80 Part Removal,
Range: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Subproperty of: E11 Modification.P31 has modified (was modified by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that was diminished by E80 Part Removal.
Although a Part removal activity normally concerns only one item of Physical Man-Made Thing, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which more than one item might be diminished by a single Part Removal activity.
Examples

P113 removed (was removed by)

Domain: E80 Part Removal,
Range: E18 Physical Thing,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E18 Physical Thing that is removed during an E80 Part Removal activity.
Examples

P114 is equal in time to

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This symmetric property allows the instances of E2 Temporal Entity with the same E52 Time-Span to be equated.
This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the equivalence can be calculated).
This property is the same as the "equal" relationship of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P115 finishes (is finished by)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows the ending point for a E2 Temporal Entity to be situated by reference to the ending point of another temporal entity of longer duration.
This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "finishes / finished-by" relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P116 starts (is started by)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows the starting point for a E2 Temporal Entity to be situated by reference to the starting point of another temporal entity of longer duration.
This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "starts / started-by" relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P117 occurs during (includes)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows the entire E52 Time-Span of an E2 Temporal Entity to be situated within the Time-Span of another temporal entity that starts before and ends after the included temporal entity.
This property is only necessary if the time span is unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated). This property is the same as the "during / includes" relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an overlap between the instances of E52 Time-Span of two instances of E2 Temporal Entity.
It implies a temporal order between the two entities: if A overlaps in time B, then A must start before B, and B must end after A. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated).
This property is the same as the "overlaps / overlapped-by" relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P119 meets in time with (is met in time by)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property indicates that one E2 Temporal Entity immediately follows another.
It implies a particular order between the two entities: if A meets in time with B, then A must precede B. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated).
This property is the same as the "meets / met-by " relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P120 occurs before (occurs after)

Domain: E2 Temporal Entity,
Range: E2 Temporal Entity,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the relative chronological sequence of two temporal entities.
It implies that a temporal gap exists between the end of A and the start of B. This property is only necessary if the relevant time spans are unknown (otherwise the relationship can be calculated).
This property is the same as the "before / after " relationships of Allen's temporal logic (Allen, 1983, pp. 832-843).
Examples

P121 overlaps with

Domain: E53 Place,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This symmetric property allows the instances of E53 Place with overlapping geometric extents to be associated with each other.
It does not specify anything about the shared area. This property is purely spatial, in contrast to Allen operators, which are purely temporal.
Examples

P122 borders with

Domain: E53 Place,
Range: E53 Place,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This symmetric property allows the instances of E53 Place which share common borders to be related as such.
This property is purely spatial, in contrast to Allen operators, which are purely temporal.
Examples

P123 resulted in (resulted from)

Domain: E81 Transformation,
Range: E77 Persistent Item,
Subproperty of: E63 Beginning of Existence.P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E77 Persistent Item or items that are the result of an E81 Transformation.
New items replace the transformed item or items, which cease to exist as units of documentation. The physical continuity between the old and the new is expressed by the link to the common Transformation.
Examples

P124 transformed (was transformed by)

Domain: E81 Transformation,
Range: E77 Persistent Item,
Subproperty of: E64 End of Existence.P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary (1, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E77 Persistent Item or items that cease to exist due to a E81 Transformation.
It is replaced by the result of the Transformation, which becomes a new unit of documentation. The continuity between both items, the new and the old, is expressed by the link to the common Transformation.
Examples

P125 used object of type (was type of object used in)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E55 Type,
Superproperty of: E7 Activity.P32 used general technique (was technique of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property defines the kind of objects used in an E7 Activity, when the specific instance is either unknown or not of interest, such as use of "a hammer".
Examples

P126 employed (was employed in)

Domain: E11 Modification,
Range: E57 Material,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies E57 Material employed in an E11 Modification.
The E57 Material used during the E11 Modification does not necessarily become incorporated into the E24 Physical Man-Made Thing that forms the subject of the E11 Modification.
Examples

P127 has broader term (has narrower term)

Domain: E55 Type,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies a super-Type to which an E55 Type is related.
It allows Types to be organised into hierarchies. This is the sense of "broader term generic (BTG)" as defined in ISO 2788
Examples

P128 carries (is carried by)

Domain: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing,
Range: E73 Information Object,
Superproperty of: E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.P65 shows visual item (is shown by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies an E73 Information Object carried by an instance of E24 Physical Man-Made Thing.
In general this would be an E84 Information Carrier P65 shows visual item (is shown by) is a specialisation of P128 carries (is carried by) which should be used for carrying visual items.
Examples

P129 is about (is subject of)

Domain: E89 Propositional Object,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E89 Propositional Object.P67 refers to (is referred to by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property documents that an E89 Propositional Object has as subject an instance of E1 CRM Entity.
This differs from P67 refers to (is referred to by), which refers to an E1 CRM Entity, in that it describes the primary subject or subjects of an E89 Propositional Object.
Examples

P130 shows features of (features are also found on)

Domain: E70 Thing,
Range: E70 Thing,
Superproperty of: E33 Linguistic Object.P73 has translation (is translation of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property generalises the notions of "copy of" and "similar to" into a dynamic, asymmetric relationship, where the domain expresses the derivative, if such a direction can be established.
Otherwise, the relationship is symmetric. It is a short-cut of P15 was influenced by (influenced) in a creation or production, if such a reason for the similarity can be verified. Moreover it expresses similarity in cases that can be stated between two objects only, without historical knowledge about its reasons.
Examples

P130.1 kind of similarity

Domain: P130 shows features of (features are also found on),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P131 is identified by (identifies)

Domain: E39 Actor,
Range: E82 Actor Appellation,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P1 is identified by (identifies)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies a name used specifically to identify an E39 Actor.
This property is a specialisation of P1 is identified by (identifies) is identified by.
Examples

P132 overlaps with

Domain: E4 Period,
Range: E4 Period,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This symmetric property allows instances of E4 Period that overlap both temporally and spatially to be related, i, e. they share some spatio-temporal extent.
This property does not imply any ordering or sequence between the two periods, either spatial or temporal.
Examples

P133 is separated from

Domain: E4 Period,
Range: E4 Period,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This symmetric property allows instances of E4 Period that do not overlap both temporally and spatially, to be related i, e. they do not share any spatio-temporal extent.
This property does not imply any ordering or sequence between the two periods either spatial or temporal.
Examples

P134 continued (was continued by)

Domain: E7 Activity,
Range: E7 Activity,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P15 was influenced by (influenced)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows two activities to be related where the domain is considered as an intentional continuation of the range.
Used multiple times, this allows a chain of related activities to be created which follow each other in sequence.
Examples

P135 created type (was created by)

Domain: E83 Type Creation,
Range: E55 Type,
Subproperty of: E65 Creation.P94 has created (was created by)
Quantification: one to many, necessary (1, n: 0, 1)
Scope Note: This property identifies the E55 Type, which is created in an E83Type Creation activity.
Examples

P136 was based on (supported type creation)

Domain: E83 Type Creation,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P15 was influenced by (influenced)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies one or more items that were used as evidence to declare a new E55 Type.
The examination of these items is often the only objective way to understand the precise characteristics of a new Type. Such items should be deposited in a museum or similar institution for that reason. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of each item to the Type, such as "holotype" or "original element".
Examples

P136.1 in the taxonomic role

Domain: P136 was based on (supported type creation),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by)

Domain: E1 CRM Entity,
Range: E55 Type,
Subproperty of: E1 CRM Entity.P2 has type (is type of)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property allows an item to be declared as a particular example of an E55 Type or taxon
The P137.1 in the taxonomic role property of P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) allows differentiation of taxonomic roles. The taxonomic role renders the specific relationship of this example to the Type, such as "prototypical", "archetypical", "lectotype", etc. The taxonomic role "lectotype" is not associated with the Type Creation (E83) itself, but selected in a later phase.
Examples

P137.1 in the taxonomic role

Domain: P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P138 represents (has representation)

Domain: E36 Visual Item,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Subproperty of: E89 Propositional Object.P67 refers to (is referred to by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property establishes the relationship between an E36 Visual Item and the entity that it visually represents.
Any entity may be represented visually. This property is part of the fully developed path from E24 Physical Man-Made Thing through P65 shows visual item (is shown by), E36 Visual Item, P138 represents (has representation) to E1 CRM Entity, which is shortcut by P62depicts (is depicted by). P138.1 mode of representation allows the nature of the representation to be refined.
Examples

P138.1 mode of representation

Domain: P138 represents (has representation),
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P139 has alternative form

Domain: E41 Appellation,
Range: E41 Appellation,
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property establishes a relationship of equivalence between two instances of E41 Appellation independent from any item identified by them. It is a dynamic asymmetric relationship, where the range expresses the derivative, if such a direction can be established. Otherwise, the relationship is symmetric. The relationship is not transitive.
The equivalence applies to all cases of use of an instance of E41 Appellation. Multiple names assigned to an object, which are not equivalent for all things identified with a specific instance of E41 Appellation, should be modelled as repeated values of P1 is identified by (identifies).
P139.1 has type allows the type of derivation, such as "transliteration from Latin 1 to ASCII" be refined..
Examples

P139.1 has type

Domain: P139 has alternative form,
Range: E55 Type,
Quantification:
Scope Note:
Examples

P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by)

Domain: E13 Attribute Assignment,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Superproperty of: E14 Condition Assessment.P34 concerned (was assessed by)
E16 Measurement.P39 measured (was measured by)
E17 Type Assignment.P41 classified (was classified by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property indicates the item to which an attribute or relation is assigned.
Examples

P141 assigned (was assigned by)

Domain: E13 Attribute Assignment,
Range: E1 CRM Entity,
Superproperty of: E14 Condition Assessment.P35 has identified (was identified by)
E15 Identifier Assignment.P37 assigned (was assigned by)
E15 Identifier Assignment.P38 deassigned (was deassigned by)
E16 Measurement.P40 observed dimension (was observed in)
E17 Type Assignment.P42 assigned (was assigned by)
Quantification: many to many (0, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property indicates the attribute that was assigned or the item that was related to the item denoted by a property P140 assigned attribute to in an Attribute assignment action.
Examples

P142 used constituent (was used in)

Domain: E15 Identifier Assignment,
Range: E41 Appellation,
Subproperty of: E7 Activity.P16 used specific object (was used for)
Quantification: (0: n, 0: n)
Scope Note: This property associates the event of assigning an instance of E42 Identifier to an entity, with the instances of E41 Appellation that were used as elements of the identifier.
Examples

P143 joined (was joined by)

Domain: E85 Joining,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that becomes member of a E74 Group in an E85 Joining.
Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).
Examples

P144 joined with (gained member by)

Domain: E85 Joining,
Range: E74 Group,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the instance of E74 Group of which an instance of E39 Actor becomes a member through an instance of E85 Joining.
Although a Joining activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which becoming member of one Group implies becoming member of another Group as well.
Joining events allow for describing people becoming members of a group with a more detailed path from E74 Group through P144 joined with (gained member by), E85 Joining, P143 joined (was joined by) to E39 Actor, compared to the shortcut offered by P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of).
The property P144.1 kind of member can be used to specify the type of membership or the role the member has in the group.
Examples

P145 separated (left by)

Domain: E86 Leaving,
Range: E39 Actor,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the instance of E39 Actor that leaves an instance of E74 Group through an instance of E86 Leaving.
Examples

P146 separated from (lost member by)

Domain: E86 Leaving,
Range: E74 Group,
Subproperty of: E5 Event.P11 had participant (participated in)
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property identifies the instance of E74 Group an instance of E39 Actor leaves through an instance of E86 Leaving.
Although a Leaving activity normally concerns only one instance of E74 Group, it is possible to imagine circumstances under which leaving one E74 Group implies leaving another E74 Group as well.
Examples

P147 curated (was curated by)

Domain: E87 Curation Activity,
Range: E78 Collection,
Quantification: many to many, necessary (1, n: 0, n)
Scope Note: This property associates an instance of E78 Collection or collections with subject of a curation activity following some implicit or explicit curation plan.
Examples

P148 has component (is component of)

Domain: E89 Propositional Object,
Range: E89 Propositional Object,
Quantification: (0: n, 0: n)
Scope Note: This property associates an instance of E89 Propositional Object with a structural part of it that is by itself an instance of E89 Propositional Object.
Examples

References